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ترجمه مقاله و پروژه های دانشجویی - مطالب ابر nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as n

لغات و اصطلاحات زنجیره تامین و تدارکات




SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 154 of 167
Unit Cost: The cost associated with a single unit of product. The total cost of producing a product or
service divided by the total number of units. The cost associated with a single unit of measure
underlying a resource, activity, product or service. It is calculated by dividing the total cost by the
measured volume. Unit cost measurement must be used with caution as it may not always be practical
or relevant in all aspects of cost management.
Unit of Driver Measure: The common denominator between groupings of similar activities.
Example: 20 hours of process time is performed in an activity center. This time equates to a number
of common activities varying in process time duration. The unit of measure is a standard measure of
time such as a minute or an hour.
Unit Load Device (ULD): Refers to airfreight containers and pallets.
Unit of Measure (UOM): The unit in which the quantity of an item is managed, e.g., pounds, each,
box of 12, package of 20, or case of 144. Various UOMs may exist for a single item. For example, a
product may be purchased in cases, stocked in boxes and issued in single units.
Unit-of-Measure Conversion: A conversion ratio used whenever multiple units-of-measure are used
with the same item. For example, if you purchased an item in cases (meaning that your purchase
order stated a number of cases rather than a number of pieces) and then stocked the item in eaches,
you would require a conversion to allow your system to calculate how many eaches are represented
by a quantity of cases. This way, when you received the cases, your system would automatically
convert the case quantity into an each quantity.
Unit Train: An entire, uninterrupted locomotive, care, and caboose movement between an origin and
destination.
United Nations Standard Product and Service Code (UN/SPSC): - developed jointly between the
UN and Dun & Bradstreet (D&B). Has a five level coding structure (segment, family, class, commodity,
business function) for nearly 9000 products.
United States Railway Association: The planning and funding agency for Conrail; created by the 3-
R Act of 1973.
Unitize: To consolidate a number of packages into one unit; the several packages are strapped,
banded, or otherwise attached together.
Unitization: In warehousing, the consolidation of several units into larger units for fewer handlings.
Unplanned Order: Orders which are received that do not fit into the volumes prescribed by the plans
developed from forecasts.
UN/SPSC: See United Nations Standard Product and Service Code
UOM: See Unit of Measure
UPC: See Uniform Product Code
Upcharges: Charges added to a bill, particularly a freight bill, to cover additional costs that were not
envisioned when a contract was written. These might include costs related to rapidly increasing fuel
charges or costs related to government mandates. See also: Accessorial Charges
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 155 of 167
Upsell: The practice of attempting to sell a higher-value product to the customer.
Upside Production Flexibility: The number of days required to complete manufacture and delivery
of an unplanned sustainable 20% increase in end product supply of the predominant product line. The
one constraint that is estimated to be the principal obstacle to a 20% increase in end product supply,
as represented in days, is Upside Flexibility: Principal Constraint. Upside Flexibility could affect three
possible areas: direct labor availability, internal manufacturing capacity, and key components or
material availability.
Upstream: Refers to the supply side of the supply chain. Upstream partners are the suppliers who
provide goods and services to the organization needed to satisfy demands which originate at point of
demand or use, as well as other flows such as return product movements, payments for purchases,
etc. Opposite of downstream.
Urban Mass Transportation Administration: An agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation
responsible for developing comprehensive mass transport systems for urban areas and for providing
financial aid to transit systems.
URL: See Uniform Resource Locator
Usage Rate: Measure of demand for product per unit of time (e.g., units per month, etc.).
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 156 of 167
V
Validation: To check whether a document is the correct type for a particular EDI system, as agreed
upon by the trading partners, in order to determine whether the document is going to or coming from
an authorized EDI user.
Value Added: Increased or improved value, worth, functionality or usefulness.
Value-Added Network (VAN): A company that acts as a clearing-house for electronic transactions
between trading partners. A third-party supplier that receives EDI transmissions from sending trading
partners and holds them in a “mailbox” until retrieved by the receiving partners.
Value-Added Productivity Per Employee: Contribution made by employees to total product
revenue minus the material purchases divided by total employment. Total employment is total
employment for the entity being surveyed. This is the average full-time equivalent employee in all
functions, including sales and marketing, distribution, manufacturing, engineering, customer service,
finance, general and administrative, and other. Total employment should include contract and
temporary employees on a full-time equivalent (FTE) basis.
Calculation:
Total Product Revenue-External Direct Material / [FTE's]
Value-Adding/Nonvalue-Adding: Assessing the relative value of activities according to how they
contribute to customer value or to meeting an organization’s needs. The degree of contribution
reflects the influence of an activity’s cost driver(s).
Value Analysis: A method to determine how features of a product or service relate to cost,
functionality, appeal and utility to a customer (i.e., engineering value analysis). Also see: Target
Costing
Value Based Return (VBR): A measure of the creation of value. It is the difference between
economic profit and capital charge.
Value Chain: A series of activities, which combined, define a business process; the series of activities
from manufacturers to the retail stores that define the industry supply chain.
Value Chain Analysis: A method to identify all the elements in the linkage of activities a firm relies
on to secure the necessary materials and services, starting from their point of origin, to manufacture,
and to distribute their products and services to an end user.
Value-of-Service Pricing: Pricing according to the value of the product being transported; thirddegree
price discrimination; demand-oriented pricing; charging what the traffic will bear.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 157 of 167
Value of Transfers: The total dollar value (for the calendar year) associated with movement of
inventory from one “bucket” into another, such as raw material to work-in-process, work-in-process to
finished goods, plant finished goods to field finished goods or customers, and field finished goods to
customers. Value of Transfers is based on the value of inventory withdrawn from a certain category
and is often approached from a costing perspective, using cost accounts. For example, Raw
Materials Value of Transfers is the value of transfers out of the raw material cost accounts (you may
have cost centers associated with inventory locations, but all "raw ingredients" usually share common
cost accounts or can be rolled up into one financial view). The same goes for WIP. Take the
manufacturing cost centers and look at the total value of withdrawals from those cost centers. While
Average Gross Inventory represents the value of the inventory in the cost center at any given time,
the Value of Transfers is the total value of inventory leaving the cost center during the year. The value
of transfers for Finished Goods is, in theory, equivalent to COGS.
Value Proposition: What the supply chain member offers to other members. To be truly effective,
the value proposition has to be two-sided; a benefit to both buyers and sellers.
Value stream: All activities, both value added and nonvalue added, required to bring a product from
raw material state into the hands of the customer, bring a customer requirement from order to
delivery and bring a design from concept to launch.
Value Stream Mapping: A pencil and paper tool used in two stages: 1. Follow a product's production
path from beginning to end and draw a visual representation of every process in the material and
information flows. 2. Then draw a future state map of how value should flow. The most important map
is the future state map.
VAN: See Value-Added Network
Variable Cost: A cost that fluctuates with the volume or activity level of business.
VBR: See Value Based Return
Velocity: Rate of product movement through a warehouse
Vendor: The manufacturer or distributor of an item or product line. Also see: Supplier
Vendor Code: A unique identifier, usually a number and sometimes the company's DUNS number,
assigned by a Customer for the Vendor it buys from. Example; a Grocery Store Chain buys Oreo's
from Nabisco. The Grocery Store Chain, for accounting purposes, identifies Nabisco as Vendor
#76091. One company can have multiple vendor codes. Example; Welch's Foods sells many different
products. Frozen grape juice concentrate, chilled grape juice, bottled grape juice, and grape jelly.
Because each of these items is a different type of product, frozen food, chilled food, beverages, dry
food, they may have a different buyer at the Grocery Store Chain, requiring a different vendor code
for each product line.
Vendor-Managed Inventory (VMI): The practice of retailers making suppliers responsible for
determining order size and timing, usually based on receipt of retail POS and inventory data. Its goal
is to increase retail inventory turns and reduce stock outs. Its goal is to increase retail inventory turns
and reduce stock outs. It may or may not involve consignment of inventory (supplier ownership of the
inventory located at the customer).
Vendor Owned Inventory (VOI): See Consignment Inventory
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 158 of 167
Vertical Hub/Vertical Portal: Serving one specific industry. Vertical portal websites that cater to
consumers within a particular industry. Similar to the term "vertical industry", these websites are
industry specific, and like a portal, they make use of Internet technology by using the same kind of
personalization technology. In addition to industry specific vertical portals that cater to consumers,
another definition of a vertical portal is one that caters solely to other businesses.
Vertical Integration: The degree to which a firm has decided to directly produce multiple valueadding
stages from raw material to the sale of the product to the ultimate consumer. The more steps
in the sequence, the greater the vertical integration. A manufacturer that decides to begin producing
parts, components, and materials that it normally purchases is said to be backward integrated.
Likewise, a manufacturer that decides to take over distribution and perhaps sale to the ultimate
consumer is said to be forward integrated.
Vessel: A floating structure designed for transport.
VICS: Voluntary Interindustry Commerce Standards. The retail industry standards body responsible
for the CPFR standard, among other things.
Viral Marketing: The concept of embedding advertising into web portals, pop-ups and as e-mail
attachments to spread the word about products or services that the target audience may not
otherwise have been interested in.
Virtual Corporation: The logical extension of outpartnering. With the virtual corporation, the
capabilities and systems of the firm are merged with those of the suppliers, resulting in a new type of
corporation where the boundaries between the suppliers’ systems and those of the firm seem to
disappear. The virtual corporation is dynamic in that the relationships and structures formed change
according to the changing needs of the customer.
Virtual Factory: A changed transformation process most frequently found under the virtual
corporation. It is a transformation process that involves merging the capabilities and capacities of the
firm with those of its suppliers. Typically, the components provided by the suppliers are those that are
not related to a core competency of the firm, while the components managed by the firm are related
to core competencies. One advantage found in the virtual factory is that it can be restructured quickly
in response to changing customer demands and needs.
Visibility: The ability to access or view pertinent data or information as it relates to logistics and the
supply chain, regardless of the point in the chain where the data exists.
Vision: The shared perception of the organization’s future—what the organization will achieve and a
supporting philosophy. This shared vision must be supported by strategic objectives, strategies, and
action plans to move it in the desired direction. Syn: vision statement
VMI: See Vendor Managed Inventory
VOI: See Vendor Owned Inventory
Voice Activated or Voice Directed: Systems which guide users such as warehouse personnel via
voice commands
Voice of the Customer: The expressed requirements and expectations of customers relative to
products or services, as documented and disseminated to the members of the providing organization.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 159 of 167
W
Wagner-Whitin Algorithm: A mathematically complex, dynamic lot-sizing technique that evaluates
all possible ways of ordering to cover net requirements in each period of the planning horizon to arrive
at the theoretically optimum ordering strategy for the entire net requirements schedule. Also see:
Discrete Order Quantity, Dynamic Lot Sizing
Wall-to-Wall Inventory: An inventory management technique in which material enters a plant and
is processed through the plant into finished goods without ever having entered a formal stock area.
WAN: See Wide Area Network
Warehouse: Storage place for products. Principal warehouse activities include receipt of product,
storage, shipment, and order picking.
Warehousing: The storing (holding) of goods.
Warehouse Management System (WMS): The systems used in effectively managing warehouse
business processes and direct warehouse activities, including receiving, putaway, picking, shipping,
and inventory cycle counts. Also includes support of radio-frequency communications, allowing realtime
data transfer between the system and warehouse personnel. They also maximize space and
minimize material handling by automating putaway processes.
Warranty Costs: Includes materials, labor, and problem diagnosis for products returned for repair or
refurbishment.
Waste: 1) In Lean and Just-in-Time, any activity that does not add value to the good or service in the
eyes of the consumer. 2) A by-product of a process or task with unique characteristics requiring
special management control. Waste production can usually be planned and controlled. Scrap is
typically not planned and may result from the same production run as waste.
Waterway Use Tax: A per-gallon tax assessed barge carriers for use of the waterways.
Wave Picking: A method of selecting and sequencing picking lists to improve the efficiency of picking
and minimize the waiting time of the delivered material. Shipping orders may be picked in waves
combined by a common product, common carrier or destination, and manufacturing orders in waves
related to work centers. Picked materials would then be consolidated by ship location during the
packaging / shipping process.
Waybill: Document containing description of goods that are part of common carrier freight shipment.
Show origin, destination, consignee/consignor, and amount charged. Copies travel with goods and are
retained by originating/delivering agents. Used by carrier for internal record and control, especially
during transit. Not a transportation contract.
Web: A computer term used to describe the global Internet. Synonym: World Wide Web
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 160 of 167
Web Browser: A client application that fetches and displays web pages and other World Wide Web
resources to the user.
Web Services: A computer term for information processing services that are delivered by third
parties using internet portals. Standardized technology communications protocols; network services as
collections of communication formats or endpoints capable of exchanging messages.
Web Site: A location on the Internet.
Weight Break: The shipment volume at which the LTL charges equal the TL charges at the minimum
weight.
Weight Confirmation: The practice of confirming or validating receipts or shipments based on the
weight.
Weight-losing raw material: A raw material that loses weight in processing
Weighted-Point Plan: A supplier selection and rating approach that uses the input gathered in the
categorical plan approach and assigns weights to each evaluation category. A weighted sum for each
supplier is obtained and a comparison made. The weights used should sum to 100% for all categories.
Also see: Categorical Plan
What You See Is What You Get (WYSIWYG): An editing interface in which a file created is
displayed as it will appear to an end-user.
Wholesaler: See Distributor
Wide Area Network (WAN): A public or private data communications system for linking computers
distributed over a large geographic area.
Will Call: The practice of taking orders that will be picked up at the selling facility by the buyer. An
area where buyers can pick up an order at the selling facility. This practice is widely used in the
service parts business.
Windows Meta File (WMF): A vector graphics format for Windows-compatible computers used
mostly or word processing clip art.
WIP: See Work in Process
WMS: See Warehouse Management System
Work-in-Process (WIP): Parts and subassemblies in the process of becoming completed finished
goods. Work in process generally includes all of the material, labor and overhead charged against a
production order which has not been absorbed back into inventory through receipt of completed
products.
World Trade Organization (WTO): An organization established on January 1, 1995 replacing the
previous General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GATT that forms the cornerstone of the world
trading system.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 161 of 167
World Wide Web (WWW): A "multimedia hyper linked database that spans the globe" and lets you
browse through lots of interesting information. Unlike earlier Internet services, the 'Web' combines
text, pictures, sounds, and even animations, and it lets you move around with a click of your
computer mouse.
WTO: See World Trade Organization
WWW: See World Wide Web
WYSIWYG: See What You See Is What You Get
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 162 of 167
X
X12: The ANSI standard for interindustry electronic interchange of business transactions.
XML: See Extensible Markup Language
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 163 of 167
Y
Yard Management System (YMS): A system which is designed to facilitate and organize the
coming, going and staging of trucks and trucks with trailers in the parking "yard" that serves a
warehouse, distribution or manufacturing facility.
Yield: The ratio of usable output from a process to its input.
YMS: See Yard Management System
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 164 of 167
Z
Zone of Rate Flexibility: Railroads are permitted to raise rates by a percentage increase in the
railroad cost index determined by the ICC; rates may be raised by 6% per year through 1984 and 4%
thereafter.
Zone of Rate Freedom: Motor carriers are permitted to raise or lower rates by 10% in one year
without ICC interference; if the rate change is within the zone of freedom, the rate is presumed to be
reasonable.
Zone of Reasonableness: A zone or limit within which air carriers are permitted to change rates
without regulatory scrutiny; if the rate change is within the zone, the new rate is presumed to be
reasonable.
Zone Picking: A method of subdividing a picking list by areas within a storeroom for more efficient
and rapid order picking. A zone-picked order must be grouped to a single location and the separate
pieces combined before delivery or must be delivered to different locations, such a work centers. Also
see: Batch Picking
Zone Price: The constant price of a product at all geographic locations within the zone.
Zone Skipping: For shipments via the US Postal Service, depositing mail at a facility one or more
zones closer to the destination. This option would benefit customers operating in close proximity to a
zone border or shipping sufficient volumes to offset additional transportation costs.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 165 of 167
Numbers
14 Points: W. Edwards Deming's 14 management practices to help companies increase their quality
and productivity:
1. create constancy of purpose for improving products and services,
2. adopt the new philosophy,
3. cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality,
4. end the practice of awarding business on price alone; instead, minimize total cost by working
with a single supplier,
5. improve constantly and forever every process for planning, production and service,
6. institute training on the job,
7. adopt and institute leadership,
8. drive out fear,
9. break down barriers between staff areas,
10. eliminate slogans, exhortations and targets for the workforce,
11. eliminate numerical quotas for the workforce and numerical goals for management,
12. remove barriers that rob people of pride of workmanship, and eliminate the annual rating or
merit system,
13. institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement for everyone and
14. put everybody in the company to work to accomplish the transformation.
24-hour Manifest Rule (24-hour Rule): U.S. Customs rule requiring carriers to submit a cargo
declaration 24 hours before cargo is laden aboard a vessel at a foreign port.
24/7: Referring to operations that are conducted 24 hours a day, 7 days a week
24/7/365: Referring to operations that are conducted 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days per
year, with no breaks for holidays, etc
3D Loading: 3D loading is a method of space optimizing designed to help quickly and easily plan the
best compact arrangement of any 3D rectangular object set (boxes) within one or more larger
rectangular enclosures (containers). It’s based on three-dimensional, most-dense packing algorithms
3PL: See Third Party Logistics
4PL: See Forth Party Logistics
5-Point Annual Average: Method frequently used in PMG studies to establish a representative
average for a one year period.
Calculation:
[12/31/98 + 3/31/98 + 6/30/99 + 9/30/99 + 12/31/99] / 5
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 166 of 167
5-S Program: A program for organizing work areas. Sometimes referred to as elements, each of the
five components of the program begins with the letter “S.” They include sort, systemize, shine or
sweep, standardize, and sustain. In the UK, the concept is converted to the 5-C program comprising
five comparable components: clear out, configure, clean and check, conformity, and custom and
practice.
• Sort—get rid of clutter; separate out what is needed for the operations.
• Systemize/Set in Order—organize the work area; make it easy to find what is needed.
• Shine—clean the work area; make it shine.
• Standardize—establish schedules and methods of performing the cleaning and sorting.
• Sustain—implement mechanisms to sustain the gains through involvement of people,
integration into the performance measurement system, discipline, and recognition.
The 5-S program is frequently combined with precepts of the Lean Manufacturing Initiative. Even
when used separately, however, the 5-S (or 5-C) program is said to yield excellent results.
Implementation of the program involves introducing each of the five elements in order, which
reportedly generates multiple benefits, including product diversification, higher quality, lower costs,
reliable deliveries, improved safety, and higher availability rate.
80-20 Rule: A term referring to the Pareto principle. The principle suggests that most effects come
from relatively few causes; that is, 80% of the effects (or sales or costs) come from 20% of the
possible causes (or items). Also see: ABC Classification, Pareto
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,

برچسب ها: SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS TERMS and GLOSSARY Updated October 2006 Definitions compiled by: Kate Vitasek Supply Chain Visions www.scvisions.com Bellevue، Washington Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions، nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted. Page 154 of 167 Unit Cost: The cost associated with a single unit of product. The total cost of producing a product or service divided by the total number of units. The cost associated with a single unit of measure underlying a resource، activity، product or service. It is calculated by dividing the total cost by the measured volume. Unit cost measurement must be used with caution as it may not always be practical or relevant in all aspects of cost management. Unit of Driver Measure: The common denominator between groupings of similar activities. Example: 20 hours of process time is performed in an activity center. This time equates to a number of common activities varying in process time duration. The unit of measure is a standard measure of time such as a minute or an hour. Unit Load Device (ULD): Refers to airfreight containers and pallets. Unit of Measure (UOM): The unit in which the quantity of an item is managed، e.g.، pounds،  

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لغات و اصطلاحات زنجیره تامین و تدارکات




SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 144 of 167
Task Interleaving: A method of combining warehouse picking and putaway. Warehouse Management
Systems (WMS) use logic to direct (typically with an RF terminal) a lift truck operator to put away a
pallet en route to the next pick. The idea is to reduce “deadheading” or driving empty material
handling equipment around the warehouse.
T’s & C’s: See Terms and Conditions
TCO: See Total Cost of Ownership
Technical Components: Component (part) of a product for which there is a limited number of
suppliers. These parts are hard to make, and require much more lead time and expertise on the part
of the supplier to produce than standard components do.
Temporary authority: The ICC may grant a temporary operating authority as a common carrier for
up to 270 days.
Ten Principles: A principle is a general rule, fundamental, or other statement of an observed truth.
Over time certain fundamental truths of material handling have been found to exist. The "principles"
of material handling are often useful in analyzing, planning and managing material handling activities
and systems. At the very least they form a basic foundation upon which one can begin building
expertise in material handling.
These principles, serve as a starting point to identifying potential problems and assessing need, are:
1. Planning
2. Standardization
3. Work
4. Ergonomic
5. Unit Load
6. Space Utilization
7. System
8. Automation
9. Environment
10. Life Cycle Cost
Tender: The document which describes a business transaction to be performed.
Terminal Delivery Allowance: A reduced rate offered in return for the shipper of consignee
tendering or picking up the freight at the carrier’s terminal.
Terms and conditions (T’s & C’s): All the provisions and agreements of a contract.
TEU: See Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit
Theoretical Cycle Time: The back-to-back process time required for a single unit to complete all
stages of a process without waiting, stoppage, or time lost due to error.
Theory of Constraints (TOC): A production management theory which dictates that volume is
controlled by a series of constraints related to work center capacity, component availability, finance,
etc. Total throughput cannot exceed the capacity of the smallest constraint, and any inventory buffers
or excess capacity at non-related work centers is waste.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 145 of 167
Third-Party Logistics (3PL): Outsourcing all or much of a company’s logistics operations to a
specialized company. The term "3PL" was first used in the early 1970s to identify intermodal
marketing companies (IMCs) in transportation contracts. Up to that point, contracts for transportation
had featured only two parties, the shipper and the carrier. When IMCs entered the picture—as
intermediaries that accepted shipments from the shippers and tendered them to the rail carriers—they
became the third party to the contract, the 3PL. But over the years, that definition has broadened to
the point where these days, every company that offers some kind of logistics service for hire calls
itself a 3PL
Third Party Logistics Provider: A firm which provides multiple logistics services for use by
customers. Preferably, these services are integrated, or "bundled" together by the provider. These
firms facilitate the movement of parts and materials from suppliers to manufacturers, and finished
products from manufacturers to distributors and retailers. Among the services which they provide are
transportation, warehousing, cross-docking, inventory management, packaging, and freight
forwarding.
Third-Party Warehousing: The outsourcing of the warehousing function by the seller of the goods.
Three-layer Framework: A basic structure and operational activity of a company; the three layers
include operational systems, control and administrative management, and master planning.
Throughput: A measure of volume through a process such as warehousing output volume (weight,
number of units). Also, the total amount of units received plus the total amount of units shipped,
divided by two.
Time Based Order System: See Fixed Reorder Cycle Inventory Model
Time Bucket: A number of days of data summarized into a columnar display. A weekly time bucket
would contain all of the relevant data for an entire week. Weekly time buckets are considered to be
the largest possible (at least in the near and medium term) to permit effective MRP.
Time Fence: A policy or guideline established to note where various restrictions or changes in
operating procedures take place. For example, changes to the master production schedule can be
accomplished easily beyond the cumulative lead time, while changes inside the cumulative lead time
become increasingly more difficult to a point where changes should be resisted. Time fences can be
used to define these points.
Time-Definite Services: Delivery is guaranteed on a specific day or at a certain time of the day.
Time/Service Rate: A rail rate that is based upon transit time.
Time-to-Product: The total time required to receive, fill, and deliver an order for an existing product
to a customer, timed from the moment that the customer places the order until the customer receives
the product.
Time Utility: A value created in a product by having the product available at the time desired.
Transportation and warehousing create time utility.
Timetables: Time schedules of departures and arrivals by origin and destination; typically used for
passenger transportation by air, bus, and rail.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 146 of 167
TL: See Truckload Carrier
TMS: See Transportation Management System
TOC: See Theory of Constraints
TOFC: See Trailer-on-Flat Car, Piggyback
Ton-Mile: A measure of output for freight transportation; it reflects the weight of the shipment and
the distance it is hauled; a multiplication of tons hauled and distance traveled.
Total Annual Material Receipts: The dollar amount associated with all direct materials received
from Jan 1 to Dec 31.
Total Annual Sales: Total Annual Sales are Total Product Revenue plus post-delivery revenues (e.g.,
maintenance and repair of equipment, system integration) royalties, sales of other services, spare
parts revenue, and rental/lease revenues.
Total Average Inventory: Average normal use stock, plus average lead stock, plus safety stock.
Total Cost Analysis: A decision-making approach that considers minimization of total costs and
recognizes the interrelationship among system variables such as transportation, warehousing,
inventory, and customer service.
Total Cost Curve: 1) In cost-volume-profit (breakeven) analysis, the total cost curve is composed of
total fixed and variable costs per unit multiplied by the number of units provided. Breakeven quantity
occurs where the total cost curve and total sales revenue curve intersect. See: Break-even chart,
Break-even point. 2) In inventory theory, the total cost curve for an inventory item is the sum of the
costs of acquiring and carrying the item. Also see: Economic Order Quantity
Total Cost of Ownership (TCO): Total cost of a computer asset throughout its lifecycle, from
acquisition to disposal. TCO is the combined hard and soft costs of owning networked information
assets. 'Hard' costs include items such as the purchase price of the asset, implementation fees,
upgrades, maintenance contracts, support contracts, and disposal costs, license fees that may or may
not be upfront or charged annually. These costs are considered 'hard costs' because they are tangible
and easily accounted for.
Total Cumulative Manufacture Cycle Time: The average time between commencement of
upstream processing and completion of final packaging for shipment operations as well as release
approval for shipment. Do not include WIP storage time.
Calculation:
[Average # of units in WIP] / [Average daily output in units] – WIP days of supply
Total Inventory Days of Supply: Total gross value of inventory at standard cost before reserves for
excess and obsolescence. Includes only inventory that is on the books and currently owned by the
business entity. Future liabilities such as consignments from suppliers are not included.
Calculation:
[5 Point Annual Average Gross Inventory] / [Cost of Good Sold/365]
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 147 of 167
Total Make Cycle Time: The average total processing time between commencement of upstream
processing and completion of all manufacturing process steps up to, but NOT including, packaging and
labeling operations (i.e. from start of manufacturing to final formulated product ready for primary
packaging). Do not include hold or test and release times.
Calculation:
[Average # of units in active manufacturing] / [Average daily output in units]
Total Package and Label Cycle Time: The average total processing time between the
commencement of the primary packaging and labeling steps to completion of the final packaging steps
for shipment.
Calculation:
[Average # of units in packaging and labeling WIP] / [Average daily output in units]
Total Product Revenue: The total value of sales made to external customers plus the transfer price
valuation of intra-company shipments, net of all discounts, coupons, allowances, and rebates.
Includes only the intra-company revenue for product transferring out of an entity, installation services
if these services are sold bundled with end products, and recognized leases to customers initiated
during the same period as revenue shipments, with revenue credited at the average selling price.
Note: Total Product Revenue excludes post-delivery revenues (maintenance and
repair of equipment, system integration), royalties, sales of other services, spare parts
revenue, and rental/lease revenues.
Total Productive Maintenance (TPM): Team based maintenance process designed to maximize
machine availability and performance and product quality.
Total quality management (TQM): A management approach in which managers constantly
communicate with organizational stakeholders to emphasize the importance of continuous quality
improvement.
Total Sourcing Lead Time (95% of Raw Material Dollar Value): Cumulative lead time (total
average combined inside-plant planning, supplier lead time [external or internal], receiving, handling,
etc., from demand identification at the factory until the materials are available in the production
facility) required to source 95% of the dollar value (per unit) of raw materials from internal and
external suppliers.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 148 of 167
Total Supply-Chain Management Cost (5 elements): Total cost to manage order processing,
acquire materials, manage inventory, and manage supply-chain finance, planning, and IT costs, as
represented as a percent of revenue. Accurate assignment of IT-related cost is challenging. It can be
done using Activity-Based-Costing methods, or based on more traditional approaches. Allocation
based on user counts, transaction counts, or departmental headcounts are reasonable approaches.
The emphasis should be on capturing all costs, whether incurred in the entity completing the survey or
incurred in a supporting organization on behalf of the entity. Reasonable estimates founded in data
were accepted as a means to assess overall performance. All estimates reflected fully burdened actual
inclusive of salary, benefits, space and facilities, and general and administrative allocations.
Calculation:
[Order Management Costs + Material Acquisition Costs + Inventory Carrying Costs + Supply-
Chain-Related Finance and Planning Costs + Total Supply-Chain-Related IT Costs] / [Total Product
Revenue] (Please see individual component categories for component detail and calculations)
Total Supply Chain Response Time: The time it takes to rebalance the entire supply chain after
determining a change in market demand. Also, a measure of a supply chain’s ability to change rapidly
in response to marketplace changes.
Calculation:
[Forecast Cycle Time] + [Re-plan Cycle Time] + [Intra-Manufacturing Re-plan Cycle Time] +
[Cumulative Source/Make Cycle Time] + [Order Fulfillment Lead Time]
Total Test and Release Cycle Time: The average total test and release time for all tests,
documentation reviews, and batch approval processes performed from start of manufacturing to
release of final packaged product for shipment.
Calculation:
[Average # of units in test and release] / [Average daily output in units]
Toto Authority: A private motor carrier receiving operating authority as a common carrier to haul
freight for the public over the private carrier’s backhaul; this type of authority was granted to the Toto
Company in 1978.
Touch Labor: The labor that adds value to the product - assemblers, welders etc. This does not
include indirect resources such as material handlers (mover and stage product, mechanical and
electrical technicians responsible for maintaining equipment.
Touches: The number of times a labor action is taken during a manufacturing or assembly process.
Touches are typically used to measure efficiency or for costing and pricing purposes.
TPM: See Total Productive Maintenance
TQM: See Total Quality Management
Tracing: Determining where a shipment is during the course of a move.
Traceability: 1) The attribute allowing the ongoing location of a shipment to be determined. 2) The
registering and tracking of parts, processes, and materials used in production, by lot or serial number.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 149 of 167
Tracing: The practice of relating resources, activities and cost objects using the drivers underlying
their cost causal relationships. The purpose of tracing is to observe and understand how costs are
arising in the normal course of business operations. Synonym: Assignment
Tracking and Tracing: Monitoring and recording shipment movements from origin to destination.
Tracking Signal: The ratio of the cumulative algebraic sum of the deviations between the forecasts
and the actual values to the mean absolute deviation. Used to signal when the validity of the
forecasting model might be in doubt.
Tractor: The tractor is the driver compartment and engine of the truck. It has two or three axles.
Trading Partner: Companies that do business with each other via EDI (e.g., send and receive
business documents, such as purchase orders).
Trading Partner Agreement: The written contract that spells out agreed upon terms between EDI
trading partners.
Traffic: A department or function charged with the responsibility for arranging the most economic
classification and method of shipment for both incoming and outgoing materials and products.
Traffic Management: The management and controlling of transportation modes, carriers and
services.
Trailer: The part of the truck that carries the goods.
Trailer Drops: When a driver drops off a full truck at a warehouse and picks up an empty one.
Trailer on a Flatcar (TOFC): A specialized form of containerization in which motor and rail transport
coordinate. Synonym: Piggyback
Tramp: An international water carrier that has no fixed route or published schedule; a tramp ship is
chartered for a particular voyage or a given time period.
Transaction: A single completed transmission, e.g., transmission of an invoice over an EDI network.
Analogous to usage of the term in data processing, in which a transaction can be an inquiry or a range
of updates and trading transactions. The definition is important for EDI service operators, who must
interpret invoices and other documents.
Transaction Set: Commonly used business transactions (e.g. purchase order, invoice, etc.) organized
in a formal, structured manner, consisting of a Transaction Set header control segment, one or more
Data Segments, and a Transaction Set trailer Control Data Segment.
Transaction Set ID: A three digit numerical representation that identifies a transaction set.
Transactional Acknowledgement: Specific Transaction Sets, such as the Purchase Order
Acknowledgement (855), that both acknowledges receipt of an order and provides special status
information such as reschedules, price changes, back order situation, etc.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 150 of 167
Transfer Pricing: The pricing of goods or services transferred from one segment of a business to
another. Transfer pricing generally includes the costs associated with performing the transfer and
therefore item costs will be incrementally higher than when received through normal channels.
Transit Inventory: Inventory in transit between manufacturing and stocking locations, or between
warehouses in a distributed warehousing model. Also see: In-transit Inventory
Transit Privilege: A carrier service that permits the shipper to stop the shipment in transit to
perform a function that changes the commodity’s physical characteristics but to pay the through rate.
Transit Time: The total time that elapses between a shipment's pickup and delivery.
Translation Software: Software the converts or "translates" business application data into EDI
standard formats, and vice versa.
Transmission Acknowledgment: Acknowledgment that a total transmission was received with no
errors detected
Transparency: The ability to gain access to information without regard to the systems landscape or
architecture. An example would be where an online customer could access a vendor’s web site to
place an order and receive availability information supplied by a third party outsourced manufacturer
or shipment information from a third party logistics provider. See also: Visibility
Transportation Association of America: An association that represents the entire U.S.
Transportation system, carriers, users, and the public; now defunct.
Transportation Management System (TMS): A computer system designed to provide optimized
transportation management in various modes along with associated activities, including managing
shipping units, labor planning and building, shipment scheduling through inbound, outbound, intracompany
shipments, documentation management (especially when international shipping is involved),
and third party logistics management.
Transportation Mode: The method of transportation: land, sea, or air shipment.
Transportation Planning: The process of defining an integrated supply chain transportation plan and
maintaining the information which characterizes total supply chain transportation requirements, and
the management of transporters both inter and intra company.
Transportation Planning Systems: The systems used in optimizing of assignments from plants to
distribution centers, and from distribution centers to stores. The systems combine "moves" to ensure
the most economical means are employed.
Transportation Requirements Planning (TRP): Utilizing computer technology and information
already available in MRP and DRP databases to plan transportation needs based on field demand.
Transportation Research Board: A division of the National Academy of Sciences which pertains to
transportation research.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 151 of 167
Transportation Security Administration (TSA): TSA was created in response to the attacks of
September 11th and signed into law in November 2001. TSA was originally in the Department of
Transportation but was moved to the Department of Homeland Security in March 2003. TSA's mission
is to protect the nation’s transportation systems by ensuring the freedom of movement for people and
commerce.
Transit Privilege: A carrier service that permits the shipper to stop the shipment in transit to
perform a function that changes the commodity’s physical characteristics, but to pay the through rate.
Transit Time: The total time that elapses from pickup to delivery of a shipment.
Transportation Association of America: An association that represents the entire U.S.
transportation system—carriers, users, and the public; now defunct.
Transportation Method: A linear programming technique that determines the least-cost allocation of
shipping goods from plants to warehouses of from warehouses to customers.
Transportation Research Forum: A professional association that provides a forum for the
discussion of transportation ideas and research techniques.
Transshipment Problem: A variation of the transportation method of linear programming that
considers consolidating shipments to one destination and reshipping from that destination.
Travel Agent: A firm that provides passenger travel information; air, rail, and steamship ticketing;
and hotel reservations. The travel agent is paid a commission by the carrier and hotel.
Trend: General upward or downward movement of a variable over time such as demand for a
product. Trends are used in forecasting to help anticipate changes in consumption over time.
Trend Forecasting Models: Methods for forecasting sales data when a definite upward or downward
pattern exists. Models include double exponential smoothing, regression, and triple smoothing.
TRP: See Transportation Requirements Planning
Truckload Carriers (TL): Trucking companies, which move full truckloads of freight directly from the
point of origin to destination.
Truckload Lot: A truck shipment that qualifies for a lower freight rate because it meets a minimum
weight and/or volume.
Trunk Lines: Oil pipelines that are used for the long-distance movement of crude oil, refined oil, or
other liquid products.
TSA: See Transportation Security Administration
Turnover: 1) Typically refers to Inventory Turnover. 2) In the United Kingdom and certain other
countries, turnover refers to annual sales volume. Also see: Inventory Turns
Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit (TEU): Standard unit for counting containers of various capacities
and for describing the capacities of container ships or terminals. One 20 Foot ISO container equals 1
TEU. One 40 Foot ISO container equals two TEU.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 152 of 167
Two-Level Master Schedule: A master scheduling approach in which a planning bill of material is
used to master schedule an end product or family, along with selected key features (options and
accessories). Also see: Production Forecast
Two-Bin System: An inventory ordering system in which the time to place an order for an item is
indicated when the first bin is empty. The second bin contains sufficient supply until the order is
received.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 153 of 167
U
Ubiquity: Existence or apparent existence everywhere at the same time. A raw material that is found
at all locations.
UCC: GS1
UCS: See Uniform Communication Standard
UI: User Interface.
ULD: See Unit Load Device
Umbrella Rate: An ICC rate-making practice that held rates to a particular level to protect the traffic
of another mode.
Unbundled Payment/Remittance: The process where payment is delivered separately from its
associated detail.
Uniform Code Council (UCC): See GS1
Uniform Communication Standard (UCS): A set of standard transaction sets for the grocery
industry that allows computer-to-computer, paperless exchange of documents between trading
partners. Using Electronic Data Interchange, UCS is a rapid, accurate and economical method of
business communication; it can be used by companies of all sizes and with varying levels of technical
sophistication.
Uniform Product Code (UPC): A standard product numbering and bar coding system used by the
retail industry. UPC codes are administered by the Uniform Code Council; they identify the
manufacturer as well as the item, and are included on virtually all retail packaging. Also see: Uniform
Code Council
Uniform Resource Locator (URL): A string that supplies the Internet address of a website or
resource on the World Wide Web, along with the protocol by which the site or resource is accessed.
The most common URL type is http;//, which gives the Internet address of a web page. Some other
URL types are gopher://, which gives the Internet address of a Gopher directory, and ftp:;//, which
gives the network location of an FTP resource.
Uniform Warehouse Receipts Act: The act that sets forth the regulations governing public
warehousing. The regulations define the legal responsibility of a warehouse manager and define the
types of receipts issued.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 154 of 167
Unit Cost: The cost associated with a single unit of product. The total cost

برچسب ها: SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS TERMS and GLOSSARY Updated October 2006 Definitions compiled by: Kate Vitasek Supply Chain Visions www.scvisions.com Bellevue، Washington Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions، nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted. Page 144 of 167 Task Interleaving: A method of combining warehouse picking and putaway. Warehouse Management Systems (WMS) use logic to direct (typically with an RF terminal) a lift truck operator to put away a pallet en route to the next pick. The idea is to reduce “deadheading” or driving empty material handling equipment around the warehouse. T’s & C’s: See Terms and Conditions TCO: See Total Cost of Ownership Technical Components: Component (part) of a product for which there is a limited number of suppliers. These parts are hard to make، and require much more lead time and expertise on the part of the supplier to produce than standard components do. Temporary authority: The ICC may grant a temporary operating authority as a common carrier for up to 270 days. Ten Principles: A principle is a general rule، fundamental، or other statement of an observed truth. Over time certain fundamental truths of material handling have been found to exist. The "principles" of material handling are often useful in analyzing، planning and managing material handling activities and systems. At the very least they form a basic foundation upon which one can begin building expertise in material handling. These principles،  

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SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 133 of 167
Skills Matrix: A visible means of displaying people’s skill levels in various tasks. Used in a team
environment to identify the skills required by the team and which team members have those skills.
SKU: See Stock Keeping Unit
Sleeper Team: The use or two drivers to operate a truck equipped with a sleeper berth; while one
driver sleeps in the berth to accumulate the mandatory off-duty time, the other driver operates the
vehicle.
Slip Seat Operation: A term used to describe a motor carrier relay terminal operation where one
driver is substituted for another who has accumulated the maximum driving time hours.
Slip Sheet: Similar to a pallet, the slip sheet, which is made of cardboard or plastic, is used to
facilitate movement of unitized loads.
Slot Based Production: A lean manufacturing term used to describe a production system which has
been level loaded (Heijunka) with a few slots held open for situations where demand must be met
immediately.
Slotting: Inventory slotting or profiling is the process of identifying the most efficient placement for
each item in a distribution center. Since each warehouse is different, proper slotting depends on a
facility’s unique product, movement, and storage characteristics. An optimal profile allows workers to
pick items more quickly and accurately and reduces the risk of injuries.
Slurry: Dry commodities that are made into a liquid form by the addition of water or other fluids to
permit movement by pipeline.
Small Group Improvement Activity: An organizational technique for involving employees in
continuous improvement activities. Also see: Quality Circle
SMART: See Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Time-Based
Smart and Secure Trade Lanes (SST): Private initiative of the Strategic Council on Security
Technology, an assembly of executives from port operators, major logistics technology providers,
transportation consultancies, and former generals and public officials. Aims to enhance the safety,
security and efficiency of cargo containers and their contents moving through the global supply chain
into U.S. ports.
Smart Label: A label that has an RFID tag integrated into it.
SOA: See Service Oriented Architecture
Society of Logistics Engineers: A professional association engaged in the advancement of logistics
technology and management.
Software as Services (SaS): A term which describes the use of computer systems provided by a
remote third party, similar to what has traditionally been called a “Service Bureau” or “Application
Service Provider (ASP)”. In this setting the service provider maintains all of the computer hardware
and software at their location, while the user accesses the systems via an internet connection and is
charged a rate based on access time. Sometimes also referred to as “On Demand” services.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 134 of 167
SOP: See Sales and Operations Planning
SOW: See Statement of Work
Sole Sourcing: When there is only one supplier for a product or service, and no alternate suppliers
are available.
Sortation: Separating items (parcels, boxes, cartons, parts, etc.) according to their intended
destination within a plant or for transit.
Spam: A computer industry term referring to the Act of sending identical and irrelevant postings to
many different newsgroups or mailing lists. Usually this posting is something that has nothing to do
with the particular topic of a newsgroup or of no real interest to the person on the mailing list.
SPC: See Statistical Process Control
Special-Commodities Carrier: A common carrier trucking company that has authority to haul a
special commodity; there are 16 special commodities, such as household goods, petroleum products,
and hazardous materials.
Special-Commodity Warehouses: A warehouse that is used to store products that require unique
types of facilities, such as grain (elevator), liquid (tank), and tobacco (barn).
Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Time-Based (SMART): A shorthand description of a
way of setting goals and targets for individuals and teams.
Splash Page: A "first" or "front" page that you often see on some websites, usually containing a
"click-through" logo or message, or a fancy Flash presentation, announcing that you have arrived. The
main content and navigation on the site lie "behind" this page (a.k.a. the homepage or "welcome
page").
Split Case Order Picking: A process used to fill orders for quantities less than a full case thereby
requiring ordered items to be picked from a case or some similar container.
Split Delivery: A method by which a larger quantity is ordered on a purchase order to secure a lower
price, but delivery is divided into smaller quantities and spread out over several dates to control
inventory investment, save storage space, etc.
Spot: To move a trailer or boxcar into place for loading or unloading.
Spot Demand: Demand, having a short lead time that is difficult to estimate. Usually supply for this
demand is provided at a premium price. An example of spot demand would be when there’s a spiked
demand for building materials as a result of a hurricane.
Spur Track: A railroad track that connects a company’s plant or warehouse with the railroad’s track;
the cost of the spur track and its maintenance is borne by the user.
SST: See Smart and Secure Trade Lanes
Stable Demand: Products for which demand does not fluctuate widely at specific points during the
year.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 135 of 167
Staff Functions: The support activities of planning and analysis provided to assist line managers with
daily operations. Logistics staff functions include location analysis, system design, cost analysis, and
planning.
Staging: 1) Pulling material for an order from inventory before the material is required. Staging is a
means to ensure that all required materials are and will be available for use at time of assembly. The
downside to staging is that it creates additional WIP inventory and reduces flexibility. 2) Placing
trailers. Also see: Accumulation Bin
Stakeholders: People with a vested interest in a company or in a project, including managers,
employees, stockholders, customers, suppliers, and others.
Stand Up Fork Lift: A forklift where the operator stands rather than sits. Most commonly used in
case picking operations where the operator must get on and off the lift frequently.
Standard Carrier Alpha Code (SCAC/SCAC Code): A unique 2 to 4-letter code assigned to
transportation companies for identification purposes. SCAC codes are required for EDI, and are printed
on bills of lading and other transportation documents.
Standard Components: Components (parts) of a product, for which there is an abundance of
suppliers. Not difficult to produce. An example would be a power cord for a computer.
Standard Cost Accounting System: A cost accounting system that uses cost units determined
before production for estimating the cost of an order or product. For management control purposes,
the standards are compared to actual costs, and variances are computed.
Standard Deviation/Variance: Measures of dispersion for a probability distribution. The variance is
the average squared difference of a distribution from the distribution’s mean (average) value. The
standard deviation is defined mathematically as the square root of the variance, and is thereby
expressed in the same units as the random variable that’s described by the probability distribution. A
distribution that varies widely about its mean value will have a larger standard deviation/variance than
a distribution with less variation about its mean value.
Standard Industrial Classification (SIC): Classification codes that are used to categorize
companies into industry groupings.
Standing Order: See Blanket Purchase Order
Start Manufacture to Order Complete Manufacture: Average lead-time from the time
manufacturing begins to the time end products are ready for shipment, including the following subelements:
order configuration verification, production scheduling, time to release order to
manufacturing or distribution, and build or configure time. (An element of Order Fulfillment Lead
Time)
Note: Determined separately for Make-to-Order, Configure/Package-to-Order, and
Engineer-to-Order products. Does not apply to Make-to-Stock products.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 136 of 167
Statement of Work (SOW): 1) A description of products to be supplied under a contract. A good
practice is for companies to have SOWs in place with their trading partners – especially for all top
suppliers. 2) In projection management, the first project planning document that should be prepared.
It describes the purpose, history, deliverables, and measurable success indicators for a project. It
captures the support required from the customer and identifies contingency plans for events that
could throw the project off course. Because the project must be sold to management, staff, and
review groups, the statement of work should be a persuasive document.
Statistical Process Control (SPC): A visual means of measuring and plotting process and product
variation. Results are used to adjust variables and maintain product quality.
Steamship Conferences: Collective rate-making bodies for liner water carriers.
Stickering: Placing customer-specific stickers on boxes of product. An example would be where Wal-
Mart has a request for their own product codes to be applied to retail boxes prior to shipment.
Stochastic Models: Models where uncertainty is explicitly considered in the analysis.
Stock Keeping Unit (SKU): A category of unit with unique combination of form, fit, and function (i.e.
unique components held in stock). To illustrate: If two items are indistinguishable to the customer, or
if any distinguishing characteristics visible to the customer are not important to the customer, so that
the customer believes the two items to be the same, these two items are part of the same SKU. As a
further illustration consider a computer company that allows customers to configure a product from a
standard catalogue components, choosing from three keyboards, three monitors, and three CPUs.
Customers may also individually buy keyboards, monitors, and CPUs. If the stock were held at the
configuration component level, the company would have nine SKUs. If the company stocks at the
component level, as well as at the configured product level, the company would have 36 SKUs. (9
component SKUs + 3*3*3 configured product SKUs. If as part of a promotional campaign the
company also specially packaged the products, the company would have a total of 72 SKUs.
Stock Out: A term used to refer to a situation where no stock was available to fill a request from a
customer or production order during a pick operation. Stock outs can be costly, including the profit
lost for not having the item available for sale, lost goodwill, substitutions. Also referred to Out of
Stock (OOS)
Stockchase: Moving shipments through regular channels at an accelerated rate; to take
extraordinary action because of an increase in relative priority. Synonym: Expediting
Stockless Purchasing: A practice whereby the buyer negotiates a price for the purchases of annual
requirements of MRO items and the seller holds inventory until the buyer places an order for individual
items.
Stockout Cost: The opportunity cost associated with not having sufficient supply to meet demand.
Stovepipe: See Silo
Straight Truck: A truck which has the driver’s cab and the trailer combined onto a single frame.
Straight trucks do not have a separate tractor and trailer. The driving compartment, engine and trailer
are one unit.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 137 of 167
Strategic Alliance: Business relationship in which two or more independent organizations cooperate
and willingly modify their business objectives and practices to help achieve long-term goals and
objectives. Also see: Marquee Partners
Strategic Planning: Looking one to five years into the future and designing a logistical system (or
systems) to meet the needs of the various businesses in which a company is involved.
Strategic Sourcing: The process of determining long-term supply requirements, finding sources to
fulfill those needs, selecting suppliers to provide the services, negotiating the purchase agreements
and managing the suppliers' performance. Focuses on developing the most effective relationships with
the right suppliers, to ensure that the right price is paid and that lifetime product costs are minimized.
It also assesses whether services or processes would provide better value if they were outsourced to
specialist organizations.
Strategic Variables: The variables that effect change in the environment and logistics strategy. The
major strategic variables include economics, population, energy, and government.
Strategy: A specific action to achieve an objective.
Stretch Wrap: Clear plastic film that is wrapped around a unit load or partial load of product to
secure it. The wrap is elastic.
Stores: The function associated with the storage and issuing of items that are frequently used. Also
frequently seen as an alternative term for warehouse.
Sub-Optimization: Decisions or activities in a part made at the expense of the whole. An example of
sub-optimization is where a manufacturing unit schedules production to benefit its cost structure
without regard to customer requirements or the effect on other business units.
Subcontracting: Sending production work outside to another manufacturer. This can involve
specialized operations such as plating metals, or complete functional operations. Also see: Outsource
Substitutability: The ability of a buyer to substitute the products of different sellers.
Sunk Cost: 1) The unrecovered balance of an investment. It is a cost, already paid, that is not
relevant to the decision concerning the future that is being made. Capital already invested that for
some reason cannot be retrieved. 2) A past cost that has no relevance with respect to future receipts
and disbursements of a facility undergoing an economic study. This concept implies that since a past
outlay is the same regardless of the alternative selected, it should not influence the choice between
alternatives.
Surrogate [item] Driver: A substitute for the ideal driver, but is closely correlated to the ideal
driver, where [item] is Resource, Activity, Cost Object. A surrogate driver is used to significantly
reduce the cost of measurement while not significantly reducing accuracy. For example, the number of
production runs is not descriptive of the material disbursing activity, but the number of production
runs may be used as an activity driver if material disbursements correlate well with the number of
production runs.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 138 of 167
Supermarket Approach: An inventory management and picking technique used in lean enterprises.
This concept was conceived by Taiichi Ohno of Toyota after a visit to the US in 1956 where he was
impressed by how consumers could pick whatever they need from the shelf, and the store would
simply replenish what was taken. This became the basis for the “pull system”.
Supplier: 1) A provider of goods or services. Also see: Vendor 2) A seller with whom the buyer does
business, as opposed to vendor, which is a generic term referring to all sellers in the marketplace.
Supplier Certification: Certification procedures verifying that a supplier operates, maintains,
improves, and documents effective procedures that relate to the customer’s requirements. Such
requirements can include cost, quality, delivery, flexibility, maintenance, safety, and ISO quality and
environmental standards.
Supplier-Owned Inventory: A variant of Vendor-Managed Inventory and Consignment Inventory. In
this case, the supplier not only manages the inventory, but also owns the stock close to or at the
customer location until the point of consumption or usage by the customer.
Supplemental Carrier: A for-hire air carrier subject to economic regulations; the carrier has no time
schedule or designated route; service is provided under a charter or contract per plane per trip.
Supply Chain: 1) starting with unprocessed raw materials and ending with the final customer using
the finished goods, the supply chain links many companies together. 2) the material and informational
interchanges in the logistical process stretching from acquisition of raw materials to delivery of
finished products to the end user. All vendors, service providers and customers are links in the supply
chain.
Supply Chain Council: A non-profit organization dedicated to improving the supply chain efficiency
of its members. The Supply-Chain Council's membership consists primarily practitioners representing
a broad cross section of industries, including manufacturers, services, distributors, and retailers. It is
the organization responsible for the SCOR standards.
Supply Chain Design: The determination of how to structure a supply chain. Design decisions include
the selection of partners, the location and capacity of warehouse and production facilities, the
products, the modes of transportation, and supporting information systems.
Supply Chain Execution (SCE): The ability to move the product out the warehouse door. This is a
critical capacity and one that only brick-and-mortar firms bring to the B2B table. Dot-coms have the
technology, but that's only part of the equation. The need for SCE is what is driving the Dot-coms to
offer equity partnerships to the wholesale distributors.
Supply Chain Event Management (SCEM): SCEM is an application that supports control processes
for managing events within and between companies. It consists of integrated software functionality
that supports five business processes: monitor, notify, simulate, control and measure supply chain
activities.
Supply Chain Integration (SCI): Likely to become a key competitive advantage of selected emarketplaces.
Similar concept to the Back-End Integration, but with greater emphasis on the moving
of goods and services.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 139 of 167
Supply Chain Inventory Visibility: Software applications that permit monitoring events across a
supply chain. These systems track and trace inventory globally on a line-item level and notify the user
of significant deviations from plans. Companies are provided with realistic estimates of when material
will arrive.
Supply Chain Management (SCM) as defined by the Council of Supply Chain Management
Professionals (CSCMP): “Supply Chain Management encompasses the planning and management of all
activities involved in sourcing and procurement, conversion, and all logistics management activities.
Importantly, it also includes coordination and collaboration with channel partners, which can be
suppliers, intermediaries, third-party service providers, and customers. In essence, supply chain
management integrates supply and demand management within and across companies. Supply
Chain Management is an integrating function with primary responsibility for linking major business
functions and business processes within and across companies into a cohesive and high-performing
business model. It includes all of the logistics management activities noted above, as well as
manufacturing operations, and it drives coordination of processes and activities with and across
marketing, sales, product design, finance and information technology.”
Supply Chain Network Design Systems: The systems employed in optimizing the relationships
among the various elements of the supply chain manufacturing plants, distribution centers, points-ofsale,
as well as raw materials, relationships among product families, and other factors-to synchronize
supply chains at a strategic level.
Supply Chain Operations Reference Model (SCOR): This is the model developed by the Supply-
Chain Council SCC and is built around six major processes: plan, source, make, deliver, return and
enable. The aim of the SCOR is to provide a standardized method of measuring supply chain
performance and to use a common set of metrics to benchmark against other organizations.
Supply Chain-Related Finance and Planning Cost Element: One of the elements comprising a
company's total supply-chain management costs. These costs consist of the following:
1. Supply-Chain Finance Costs: Costs associated with paying invoices, auditing physical counts,
performing inventory accounting, and collecting accounts receivable. Does NOT include
customer invoicing/ accounting costs (see Order Management Costs).
2. Demand/Supply Planning Costs: Costs associated with forecasting, developing finished goods,
intermediate, subassembly or end item inventory plans, and coordinating Demand/Supply
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 140 of 167
Supply Chain-Related IT Costs: Information Technology (IT) costs (in US dollars) associated with
major supply-chain management processes as described below. These costs should include:
Development costs (costs incurred in process reengineering, planning, software development,
installation, implementation, and training associated with new and/or upgraded architecture,
infrastructure, and systems to support the described supply-chain management processes), Execution
costs (operating costs to support supply-chain process users, including computer and network
operations, EDI and telecommunications services, and amortization/depreciation of hardware,
Maintenance costs (costs incurred in problem resolution, troubleshooting, repair, and routine
maintenance associated with installed hardware and software for described supply-chain management
processes. Include costs associated with data base administration, systems configuration control,
release planning and management. These costs are associated with the following processes:
• PLAN
1. Product Data Management - Product phase-in/phase-out and release; post introduction
support & expansion; testing and evaluation; end-of-life inventory management. Item
master definition and control.
2. Forecasting and Demand/Supply Manage and Finished Goods - Forecasting; end-item
inventory planning, DRP, production master scheduling for all products, all channels.
• SOURCE
1. Sourcing/Material Acquisition - Material requisitions, purchasing, supplier quality
engineering, inbound freight management, receiving, incoming inspection, component
engineering, tooling acquisition, accounts payable.
2. Component and Supplier Management - Part number cross-references, supplier catalogs,
approved vendor lists.
3. Inventory Management - Perpetual and physical inventory controls and tools.
• MAKE
1. Manufacturing Planning - MRP, production scheduling, tracking, mfg. engineering, mfg.
documentation management, inventory/obsolescence tracking.
2. Inventory Management - Perpetual and physical inventory controls and tools.
3. Manufacturing Execution - MES, detailed and finite interval scheduling, process controls
and machine scheduling.
• DELIVER
1. Order Management - Order entry/ maintenance, quotes, customer database, product/price
database, accounts receivable, credits and collections, invoicing.
2. Distribution and Transportation Management - DRP shipping, freight management, traffic
management.
3. Inventory Management - Perpetual and physical inventory controls and tools.
4. Warehouse Management - Finished goods, receiving and stocking, pick/pack.
5. Channel Management - Promotions, pricing and discounting, customer satisfaction
surveys.
6. Field Service/Support - Field service, customer and field support, technical service,
service/call management, returns and warranty tracking.
• EXTERNAL ELECTRONIC INTERFACES
Plan/Source/Make/Deliver - Interfaces, gateways, and data repositories created and
maintained to exchange supply-chain related information with the outside world. E-Commerce
initiatives. Includes development and implementation costs.
Note: Accurate assignment of IT-related cost is challenging. It can be done using
Activity-Based-Costing methods, or using other approaches such as allocation based
on user counts, transaction counts, or departmental headcounts. The emphasis should
be on capturing all costs. Costs for any IT activities that are outsourced should be
included.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 141 of 167
Supply Chain Resiliency: A term describing the level of hardening of the supply chain against
disasters.
Supply Chain Strategy Planning: The process of process of analyzing, evaluating, defining supply
chain strategies, including network design, manufacturing and transportation strategy and inventory
policy.
Supply Chain Vulnerability: Of equal importance to Variability, Velocity and Volume in the elements
of the Supply Chain. The term evaluates the supply chain based on the level of acceptance of the five
steps of disaster logistics being planning, detection, mitigation, response and recovery.
Supply Planning: The process of identifying, prioritizing, and aggregating, as a whole with
constituent parts, all sources of supply that are required and add value in the supply chain of a
product or service at the appropriate level, horizon and interval.
Supply Planning Systems: The process of identifying, prioritizing, and aggregating, as a whole with
constituent parts, all sources of supply that are required and add value in the supply chain of a
product or service at the appropriate level, horizon and interval.
Supply Warehouse: A warehouse that stores raw materials. Goods from different suppliers are
picked, sorted, staged, or sequenced at the warehouse to assemble plant orders.
Support Costs: Costs of activities not directly associated with producing or delivering products or
services. Examples are the costs of information systems, process engineering and purchasing. Also
see: Indirect Cost
Surcharge: An add-on charge to the applicable charges; motor carriers have a fuel surcharge, and
railroads can apply a surcharge to any joint rate that does not yield 110% of variable cost.
Sustaining Activity: An activity that benefits an organizational unit as a whole, but not any specific
cost object.
SWAS: Store-Within-A-Store.
Switch Engine: A railroad engine that is used to move rail cars short distances within a terminal and
plant.
Switching Company: A railroad that moves rail cars short distances; switching companies connect
two mainline railroads to facilitate through movement of shipments.
SWOT: See SWOT Analysis
SWOT Analysis: An analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of and to an
organization. SWOT analysis is useful in developing strategy.
Synchronization: The concept that all supply chain functions are integrated and interact in real time;
when changes are made to one area, the effect is automatically reflected throughout the supply chain.
Syntax: The grammar or rules which define the structure of the EDI standard.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 142 of 167
System: A set of interacting elements, variables, parts, or objects that are functionally related to
each other and form a coherent group.
Systems concept: A decision-making strategy that emphasizes overall system efficiency rather than
the efficiency of the individual part of the system.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 143 of 167
T
Tact Time: See Takt Time
Tactical Planning: The process of developing a set of tactical plans (e.g., production plan, sales plan,
marketing plan, and so on). Two approaches to tactical planning exist for linking tactical plans to
strategic plans—production planning and sales and operations planning. See: Sales and operational
planning, strategic planning.
Taguchi Method: A concept of off-line quality control methods conducted at the product and process
design stages in the product development cycle. This concept, expressed by Genichi Taguchi,
encompasses three phases of product design: system design, parameter design, and tolerance design.
The goal is to reduce quality loss by reducing the variability of the product’s characteristics during the
parameter phase of product development.
Takt Time: Sets the pace of production to match the rate of customer demand and becomes the
heartbeat of any lean production system. It is computed as the available production time divided by
the rate of customer demand. For example, assume demand is 10,000 units per month, or 500 units
per day, and planned available capacity is 420 minutes per day. The takt time = 420 minutes per day/
500 units per day = 0.84 minutes per unit. This takt time means that a unit should be planned to exit
the production system on average every 0.84 minutes.
Tally Sheet: A printed form on which companies record, by making an appropriate mark, the number
of items they receive or ship. In many operations, tally sheets become a part of the permanent
inventory records.
Tandem: A truck that has two drive axles or a trailer that has two axles.
Tank Cars: Rail cars that are designed to haul bulk liquids or gas commodities.
Tapering Rate: A rate that increases with distance but not in direct proportion to the distance the
commodity is shipped.
Tare Weight: The weight of a substance, obtained by deducting the weight of the empty container
from the gross weight of the full container.
Target Costing: A target cost is calculated by subtracting a desired profit margin from an estimated
or a market-based price to arrive at a desired production, engineering, or marketing cost. This may
not be the initial production cost, but one expected to be achieved during the mature production
stage. Target costing is a method used in the analysis of product design that involves estimating a
target cost and then designing the product/service to meet that cost. Also see: Value Analysis
Tariff: A tax assessed by a government on goods entering or leaving a country. The term is also used
in transportation in reference to the fees and rules applied by a carrier for its services.
Tasks: The breakdown of the work in an activity into smaller elements.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 144 of 167
Task Interleaving: A method of combining warehouse picking and putaway.

برچسب ها: SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS TERMS and GLOSSARY Updated October 2006 Definitions compiled by: Kate Vitasek Supply Chain Visions www.scvisions.com Bellevue، Washington Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions، nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted. Page 133 of 167 Skills Matrix: A visible means of displaying people’s skill levels in various tasks. Used in a team environment to identify the skills required by the team and which team members have those skills. SKU: See Stock Keeping Unit Sleeper Team: The use or two drivers to operate a truck equipped with a sleeper berth; while one driver sleeps in the berth to accumulate the mandatory off-duty time، the other driver operates the vehicle. Slip Seat Operation: A term used to describe a motor carrier relay terminal operation where one driver is substituted for another who has accumulated the maximum driving time hours. Slip Sheet: Similar to a pallet، the slip sheet، which is made of cardboard or plastic، is used to facilitate movement of unitized loads. Slot Based Production: A lean manufacturing term used to describe a production system which has been level loaded (Heijunka) with a few slots held open for situations where demand must be met immediately. Slotting: Inventory slotting or profiling is the process of identifying the most efficient placement for each item in a distribution center. Since each warehouse is different،  

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SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 124 of 167
Regional Carrier: A for-hire air carrier, usually certificated, that has annual operating revenues of
less than $74 million; the carrier usually operates within a particular region of the country.
Regular-Route Carrier: A motor carrier that is authorized to provide service over designated routes.
Relay Terminal: A motor carrier terminal designed to facilitate the substitution of one driver for
another who has driven the maximum hours permitted.
Release-to-Start Manufacturing: Average time from order release to manufacturing to the start of
the production process. This cycle time may typically be required to support activities such as
material movement and line changeovers.
Released-Value Rates: Rates based upon the value of the shipment; the maximum carrier liability
for damage is less than the full value, and in return the carrier offers a lower rate.
Reliability: A carrier selection criterion that considers the variation in carrier transit time; the
consistency of the transit time provided.
Reorder Point: A predetermined inventory level that triggers the need to place an order. This
minimum level provides inventory to meet anticipated demand during the time it takes to receive the
order.
Reparation: The ICC could require railroads to repay users the difference between the rate charged
and the maximum rate permitted when the ICC found the rate to be unreasonable or too high.
Re-plan Cycle: Time between the initial creation of a regenerated forecast and the time its impact is
incorporated into the Master Production Schedule of the end-product manufacturing facility. (An
element of Total Supply Chain Response Time)
Replenishment: The process of moving or re-supplying inventory from a reserve (or upstream)
storage location to a primary (or downstream) storage or picking location, or to another mode of
storage in which picking is performed.
Request for Information (RFI): A document used to solicit information about vendors, products,
and services prior to a formal RFQ/RFP process.
Request for Proposal (RFP): A document, which provides information concerning needs and
requirements for a manufacturer. This document is created in order to solicit proposals from potential
suppliers. For, example, a computer manufacturer may use a RFP to solicit proposals from suppliers of
third party logistics services.
Request for Quote (RFQ): A document used to solicit vendor responses when a product has been
selected and price quotations are needed from several vendors.
Resellers: Organizations intermediate in the manufacturing and distribution process, such as
wholesalers and retailers.
Resource Driver: In cost accounting, the best single quantitative measure of the frequency and
intensity of demands placed on a resource by other resources, activities, or cost objects. It is used to
assign resource costs to activities, and cost objects, or to other resources.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 125 of 167
Resources: Economic elements applied or used in the performance of activities or to directly support
cost objects. They include people, materials, supplies, equipment, technologies and facilities. Also
see: Resource Driver, Capacity
Retailer: A business that takes title to products and resells them to final consumers. Examples
include Wal-Mart, Best Buy, and Safeway, but also include the many smaller independent stores.
Return Disposal Costs: The costs associated with disposing or recycling products that have been
returned due to End-of-Life or Obsolescence.
Return Goods Handling: Processes involved with returning goods from the customer to the
manufacturer. Products may be returned because of performance problems or simply because the
customer doesn't like the product.
Return Material Authorization or Return Merchandise Authorization (RMA): A number usually
produced to recognize and give authority for a faulty, perhaps, good to be returned to a distribution
centre of manufacturer. A form generally required with a Warranty/Return, which helps the company
identify the original product, and the reason for return. The RPA number often acts as an order form
for the work required in repair situations, or as a reference for credit approval.
Return on Assets (ROA): Financial measure calculated by dividing profit by assets.
Return on Net Assets: Financial measure calculated by dividing profit by assets net of depreciation.
Return on Sales: Financial measure calculated by dividing profit by sales.
Return Product Authorization (RPA): Also called Return Material or Goods Authorization (RMA or
RGA). A form generally required with a Warranty/Return, which helps the company identify the
original product, and the reason for return. The RPA number often acts as an order form for the work
required in repair situations, or as a reference for credit approval.
Return to Vendor (RTV): Material that has been rejected by the customer or the buyer’s inspection
department and is awaiting shipment back to the supplier for repair or replacement.
Returns Inventory Costs: The costs associated with managing inventory, returned for any of the
following reasons: repair, refurbish, excess, obsolescence, End-of-Life, ecological conformance, and
demonstration. Includes all applicable elements of the Level 2 component Inventory Carrying Cost of
Total Supply Chain Management Cost
Returns Material Acquisition, Finance, Planning and IT Costs: The costs associated with
acquiring the defective products and materials for repair or refurbishing items, plus any Finance,
Planning and Information Technology cost to support Return Activity.. Includes all applicable elements
of the Level 2 components Material Acquisition Cost (acquiring materials for repairs), Supply Chain
Related Finance and Planning Costs and Supply Chain IT Costs of Total Supply Chain Management
Cost.
Returns Order Management Costs: The costs associated with managing Return Product
Authorizations (RPA). Includes all applicable elements of the Level 2 component Order Management
Cost of Total Supply Chain Management Cost. See Order Management Costs
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 126 of 167
Returns Processing Cost: The total cost to process repairs, refurbished, excess, obsolete, and Endof-
Life products including diagnosing problems, and replacing products. Includes the costs of logistics
support, materials, centralized functions, troubleshooting service requests, on-site diagnosis and
repair, external repair, and miscellaneous. These costs are broken into Returns Order Management,
Returns Inventory Carrying, Returns Material Acquisition, Finance, Planning, IT, Disposal and Warranty
Costs.
Returns To Scale: A defining characteristic of B2B. Bigger is better. It's what creates the winner
takes all quality of most B2B hubs. It also places a premium on being first to market and first to
achieve critical mass.
Reverse Auction: A type of auction where suppliers bid to sell products to a buyer (e.g. retailer). As
bidding continues, the prices decline (opposite of a regular auction, where buyers are bidding to buy
products).
Reverse Engineering: A process whereby competitors’ products are disassembled & analyzed for
evidence of the use of better processes, components & technologies
Reverse Logistics: A specialized segment of logistics focusing on the movement and management of
products and resources after the sale and after delivery to the customer. Includes product returns for
repair and/or credit.
RF: See Radio Frequency
RFI: See Request for Information
RFID: See Radio Frequency Identification. Also see: Radio Frequency
RFP: See Request for Proposal
RFQ: See Request for Quote
RGA: Return Goods Authorization. See: Return Material Authorization
Rich Media: An Internet advertising term for a Web page ad that uses advanced technology such as
streaming video, downloaded applet (programs) that interact instantly with the user, and ads that
change when the user's mouse passes over it.
Rich Text Format (RFT): A method of encoding text formatting and document structure using the
ASCII character set. By convention, RTF files have an .rtf filename extension.
Right of Eminent Domain: A concept that permits the purchase of land needed for transportation
right-of-way in a court of law; used by railroads and pipelines.
RM: See Raw Materials
RMA: Return Material Authorization. See Return Product Authorization
ROA: See Return on Assets
ROI: Return on Investment.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 127 of 167
Roll-On-Roll-Off (RO-RO): A type of ship designed to permit cargo to be driven on at origin and off
at destination; used extensively for the movement of automobiles.
Root Cause Analysis: Analytical methods to determine the core problem(s) of an organization,
process, product, market, etc.
RosettaNet: Consortium of major Information Technology, Electronic Components, Semiconductor
Manufacturing, Telecommunications and Logistics companies working to create and implement
industry-wide, open e-business process standards. These standards form a common e-business
language, aligning processes between supply chain partners on a global basis. RosettaNet is a
subsidiary of the GS1 Group.
Routing or Routing Guide: 1) Process of determining how shipment will move between origin and
destination. Routing information includes designation of carrier(s) involved, actual route of carrier,
and estimated time enroute. 2) Right of shipper to determine carriers, routes and points for transfer
shipments. 3) In manufacturing this is the document which defines a process of steps used to
manufacture and/or assemble a product.
Routing Accuracy: When specified activities conform to administrative specifications, and specified
resource consumptions (both man and machine) are detailed according to administrative specifications
and are within ten percent of actual requirements.
RPA: See Return Product Authorization
RTF: See Rich Text Format
RTV: See Return to Vendor
Rule of Eight: Before the Motor Carrier Act of 1980, contract carriers requesting authority were
restricted to eight shippers under contract. The number of shippers has been deleted as a
consideration for granting a contract carrier permit.
Rule of Rate Making: A regulatory provision directing the regulatory agencies to consider the
earnings necessary for a carrier to provide adequate transportation.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 128 of 167
S
S&OP: See Sales and Operations Planning
SAE: Society of Automotive Engineers.
Safety Stock: The inventory a company holds above normal needs as a buffer against delays in
receipt of supply or changes in customer demand.
Salable Goods: A part or assembly authorized for sale to final customers through the marketing
function.
Sales and Operations Planning (SOP): A strategic planning process that reconciles conflicting
business objectives and plans future supply chain actions. S&OP Planning usually involves various
business functions such as sales, operations and finance working together to agree on a single
plan/forecast that can be used to drive the entire business.
Sales Mix: The proportion of individual product-type sales volumes that make up the total sales
volume.
Sales Plan: A time-phased statement of expected customer orders anticipated to be received
(incoming sales, not outgoing shipments) for each major product family or item. It represents sales
and marketing management’s commitment to take all reasonable steps necessary to achieve this level
of actual customer orders. The sales plan is a necessary input to the production planning process (or
sales and operations planning process). It is expressed in units identical to those used for the
production plan (as well as in sales dollars). Also see: Aggregate planning, Production Planning, Sales
and Operations Planning
Sales Planning: The process of determining the overall sales plan to best support customer needs
and operations capabilities while meeting general business objectives of profitability, productivity,
competitive customer lead times, and so on, as expressed in the overall business plan. Also see:
Production Planning, Sales and Operations Planning
Salvage Material: Unused material that has a market value and can be sold.
SaS: See Software as Services
Saw-Tooth Diagram: A quantity-versus-time graphic representation of the order point/order
quantity inventory system showing inventory being received and then used up and reordered.
SBT: See Scan-Based Trading
SCAC/SCAC Code: See Standard Carrier Alpha Code
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 129 of 167
Scalability: 1) How quickly and efficiently a company can ramp up to meet demand. See also uptime
production flexibility. 2) How well a solution to some problem will work when the size of the problem
increases. The economies to scale don't really kick in until you reach the critical mass, then revenues
start to increase exponentially.
Scan: A computer term referring to the action of scanning bar codes or RF tags.
Scan-Based Trading (SBT): Scan-based trading is a method of using Point of Sale data from
scanners and retail checkout to initiate invoicing between a manufacturer and retailer (pay on use), as
well as generate re-supply orders.
Scanlon Plan: A system of group incentives on a companywide or plantwide basis that sets up one
measure that reflects the results of all efforts. The Scanlon plan originated in the 1930’s by Joe
Scanlon and MIT. The universal standard is the ratio of labor costs to sales value added by production.
If there is an increase in production sales value with no change in labor costs, productivity has
increased while unit cost has decreased.
SCE: See Supply Chain Execution
SCEM: See Supply Chain Event Management
Scenario Planning: A form of planning in which likely sets of relevant circumstances are identified in
advance, and used to assess the impact of alternative actions.
SCI: See Supply Chain Integration
SCM: See Supply Chain Management
SCOR: See Supply Chain Operations Reference Model
Scorecard: A performance measurement tool used to capture a summary of the key performance
indicators (KPIs)/metrics of a company. Metrics dashboards/scorecards should be easy to read and
usually have “red, yellow, green” indicators to flag when the company is not meeting its targets for its
metrics. Ideally, a dashboard/scorecard should be cross-functional in nature and include both financial
and non-financial measures. In addition, scorecards should be reviewed regularly – at least on a
monthly basis and weekly in key functions such as manufacturing and distribution where activities are
critical to the success of a company. The dashboard/scorecards philosophy can also be applied to
external supply chain partners such as suppliers to ensure that suppliers’ objectives and practices
align. Synonym: Dashboard
Scrap Material: Unusable material that has no market value.
Seasonality: A repetitive pattern of demand from year to year (or other repeating time interval) with
some periods considerably higher than others. Seasonality explains the fluctuation in demand for
various recreational products which are used during different seasons. Also see: Base Series
Secondary Highways: Highways that serve primarily rural areas.
Secure Electronic Transaction (SET): In e-commerce, a system for guaranteeing the security of
financial transactions conducted over the Internet.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 130 of 167
Self Billing: A transportation industry strategy which prescribes that a carrier will accept payment
based on the tender document provided by the shipper.
Self Correcting: A computer term for an online process that validates data and won’t allow the data to
enter the system unless all errors are corrected.
Sell In: Units which are sold to retail stores by the manufacturer or distributor for re-sale to
consumers. The period of time in a Product Life Cycle where the manufacture works with it’s resellers
to market and build inventory for sale. Also see: Sell Through
Sell Through: Units sold from retail stores to customers. The point in a Product Life Cycle where
initial consumption rates are developed and demand established. Also See: Sell In
Selling, General and Administrative (SG&A) Expenses: Includes marketing, communication,
customer service, sales salaries and commissions, occupancy expenses, unallocated overhead, etc.
Excludes interest on debt, domestic or foreign income taxes, depreciation and amortization,
extraordinary items, equity gains or losses, gain or loss from discontinued operations and
extraordinary items.
Separable Cost: A cost that can be directly assignable to a particular segment of the business.
Serial Number: A unique number assigned for identification to a single piece that will never be
repeated for similar pieces. Serial numbers are usually applied by the manufacturer but can be applied
at other points, including by the distributor or wholesaler. Serial numbers can be used to support
traceability and warranty programs.
Serpentine Picking: A method used for picking warehouse orders wherein the pickers are directed to
pick from racks on both sides of an aisle as they move from one end to the other. A different method
would be to pick from one side (front to back) then from the opposite side (back to front). Where
used, serpentine picking can halve travel time and improve traffic flow down the aisles.
Service Level: A measure (usually expressed as a percentage) of satisfying demand through
inventory or by the current production schedule in time to satisfy the customer’s requested delivery
dates and quantities.
Service Oriented Architecture (SOA): A computer system term which describes an software
architectural concept that defines the use of services to support business requirements. In an SOA,
resources are made available to other participants in the network as independent services that are
accessed in a standardized way. Most definitions of SOA identify the use of web services (using SOAP
and WSDL) in its implementation, however it is possible to implement SOA using any service-based
technology.
Service Parts Revenue: The sum of the value of sales made to external customers and the transfer
price valuation of sales within the company of repair or replacement parts and supplies, net of all
discounts, coupons, allowances, and rebates.
SET: See Secure Electronic Transaction
Setup Costs: The costs incurred in staging the production line to produce a different item.
SG&A: See Selling General & Administrative Expense
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 131 of 167
Shared Services: Consolidation of a company's back-office processes to form a spinout (or a
separate "shared services" unit, to be run like a separate business), providing services to the parent
company and, sometimes, to external customers. Shared services typically lower overall cost due to
the consolidation, and may improve support as a result of focus.
Shareholder Value: Combination of profitability (revenue and costs) and invested capital (working
capital and fixed capital).
Shelf Life: The amount of time an item may be held in inventory before it becomes unusable. Shelf
life is a consideration for food and drugs which deteriorate over time, and for high tech products which
become obsolete quickly.
Shewhart Cycle: See Plan-Do-Check-Action
Shingo’s Seven Wastes: Shigeo Shingo, a pioneer in the Japanese Just-in-Time philosophy,
identified seven barriers to improving manufacturing. They are 1) waste of overproduction, 2) waste
of waiting, 3) waste of transportation, 4) waste of stocks, 5) waste of motion, 6) waste of making
defects, and 7) waste of the processing itself.
Ship Agent: A liner company or tramp ship operator representative who facilitates ship arrival,
clearance, loading and unloading, and fee payment while at a specific port.
Ship Broker: A firm that serves as a go-between for the tramp ship owner and the chartering
consignor or consignees.
Shipper: The party that tenders goods for transportation.
Shipper-Carriers: Shipper-carriers (also called private carriers) are companies with goods to be
shipped that own or manage their own vehicle fleets. Many large retailers, particularly groceries and
"big box" stores, are shipper-carriers.
Shipper’s Agent: A firm that acts primarily to match up small shipments, especially single-traffic
piggyback loads to permit use of twin-trailer piggyback rates.
Shipper’s Association: A nonprofit, cooperative consolidator and distributor of shipments owned or
shipped by member firms; acts in much the same was as for-profit freight forwarders.
Shipping: The function that performs tasks for the outgoing shipment of parts, components, and
products. It includes packaging, marking, weighing, and loading for shipment.
Shipping Lane: A predetermined, mapped route on the ocean that commercial vessels tend to follow
between ports. This helps ships avoid hazardous areas. In general transportation, the logical route
between the point of shipment and the point of delivery used to analyze the volume of shipment
between two points.
Shipping Manifest: A document that lists the pieces in a shipment. A manifest usually covers an
entire load regardless of whether the load is to be delivered to a single destination or many
destinations. Manifests usually list the items, piece count, total weight, and the destination name and
address for each destination in the load.
Shop Calendar: See Manufacturing Calendar
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 132 of 167
Shop Floor Production Control Systems: The systems that assign priority to each shop order,
maintaining work-in-process quantity information, providing actual output data for capacity control
purposes and providing quantity by location by shop order for work-in-process inventory and
accounting purposes.
Short-Haul Discrimination: Charging more for a shorter haul than for a longer haul over the same
route, in the same direction, and for the same commodity.
Short Shipment: Piece of freight missing from shipment as stipulated by documents on hand.
Shrinkage: Reductions of actual quantities of items in stock, in process, or in transit. The loss may
be caused by scrap, theft, deterioration, evaporation, etc.
SIC: See Standard Industrial Classification
Sigma: A Greek letter commonly used to designate the standard deviation of a population. Sigma is
a statistical term that measures how much a process varies from perfection, based on the number of
defects per million units.
One Sigma = 690,000 per million units
Two Sigma = 308,000 per million units
Three Sigma = 66,800 per million units
Four Sigma = 6,210 per million units
Five Sigma = 230 per million units
Six Sigma = 3.4 per million units
Silo: Also frequently called “Foxhole” or “Stovepipe”, relates to a management / organization style
where each functional unit operates independently, and with little or no collaboration between them
on major business processes and issues.
Simulation: A mathematical technique for testing the performance of a system due to uncertain
inputs and/or uncertain system configuration options. Simulation produces probability distributions for
the behavior (outputs) of a system. A company may build a simulation model of its build plan process
to evaluate the performance of the build plan under multiple scenarios on product demand.
Single-Period Inventory Models: Inventory models used to define economical or profit maximizing
lot-size quantities when an item is ordered or produced only once, e.g., newspapers, calendars, tax
guides, greeting cards, or periodicals, while facing uncertain demands.
Single Sourcing: When an organization deliberately chooses to use one supplier to provide a product
or service, even though there are other suppliers available.
Single Source Leasing: Leasing both the truck and driver from one source.
Six-Sigma Quality: A term used generally to indicate that a process is well controlled, i.e., tolerance
limits are ±6 sigma {3.4 defects per million events) from the centerline in a control chart. Six Sigma’s
goal is to define processes and manage those processes to obtain the lowest possible level of error—
thus it can be applied to virtually any process, not just manufacturing. The term is usually associated
with Motorola, which named one of its key operational initiatives Six-Sigma Quality.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions

برچسب ها: SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS TERMS and GLOSSARY Updated October 2006 Definitions compiled by: Kate Vitasek Supply Chain Visions www.scvisions.com Bellevue، Washington Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions، nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted. Page 124 of 167 Regional Carrier: A for-hire air carrier، usually certificated، that has annual operating revenues of less than $74 million; the carrier usually operates within a particular region of the country. Regular-Route Carrier: A motor carrier that is authorized to provide service over designated routes. Relay Terminal: A motor carrier terminal designed to facilitate the substitution of one driver for another who has driven the maximum hours permitted. Release-to-Start Manufacturing: Average time from order release to manufacturing to the start of the production process. This cycle time may typically be required to support activities such as material movement and line changeovers. Released-Value Rates: Rates based upon the value of the shipment; the maximum carrier liability for damage is less than the full value، and in return the carrier offers a lower rate. Reliability: A carrier selection criterion that considers the variation in carrier transit time; the consistency of the transit time provided. Reorder Point: A predetermined inventory level that triggers the need to place an order. This minimum level provides inventory to meet anticipated demand during the time it takes to receive the order. Reparation: The ICC could require railroads to repay users the difference between the rate charged and the maximum rate permitted when the ICC found the rate to be unreasonable or too high. Re-plan Cycle: Time between the initial creation of a regenerated forecast and the time its impact is incorporated into the Master Production Schedule of the end-product manufacturing facility. (An element of Total Supply Chain Response Time) Replenishment: The process of moving or re-supplying inventory from a reserve (or upstream) storage location to a primary (or downstream) storage or picking location، or to another mode of storage in which picking is performed. Request for Information (RFI): A document used to solicit information about vendors،  

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TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 112 of 167
Planned Date: The date an operation, such as a receipt, shipment, or delivery of an order is planned
to occur.
Planned Order: A suggested order quantity, release date, and due date created by the planning
system’s logic when it encounters net requirements in processing MRP. In some cases, it can also be
created by a master scheduling module. Planned orders are created by the computer, exist only
within the computer, and may be changed or deleted by the computer during subsequent processing if
conditions change. Planned orders at one level will be exploded into gross requirements for
components at the next level. Planned orders, along with released orders, serve as input to capacity
requirements planning to show the total capacity requirements by work center in future time periods.
Also see: Planning Time Fence, Firm Planned Order
Planned Receipt: An anticipated receipt against an open purchase order or open production order.
Planning Bill: See Planning Bill of Material
Planning Bill of Material: An artificial grouping of items or events in bill-of-material format used to
facilitate master scheduling and material planning. It may include the historical average of demand
expressed as a percentage of total demand for all options within a feature or for a specific end item
within a product family and is used as the quantity per in the planning bill of material. Synonym:
Planning Bill. Also see: Hedge Inventory, Production Forecast, Pseudo Bill of Material
Planning Calendar: See Manufacturing Calendar
Planning Fence: See Planning Time Fence
Planning Horizon: The amount of time a plan extends into the future. For a master schedule, this is
normally set to cover a minimum of cumulative lead time plus time for lot sizing low-level components
and for capacity changes of primary work centers or of key suppliers. For longer term plans the
planning horizon must be long enough to permit any needed additions to capacity. Also see:
Cumulative Lead Time, Planning Time Fence
Planning Time Fence: A point in time denoted in the planning horizon of the master scheduling
process that marks a boundary inside of which changes to the schedule may adversely affect
component schedules, capacity plans, customer deliveries, and cost. Outside the planning time fence,
customer orders may be booked and changes to the master schedule can be made within the
constraints of the production plan. Changes inside the planning time fence must be made manually by
the master scheduler. Synonym: Planning Fence. Also see: Cumulative Lead Time, Demand Time
Fence, Firm Planned Order, Planned Order, Planning Horizon, Time Fence.
Planogram: The end result of analyzing the sales data of an item or group of items to determine the
best arrangement of products on a store shelf. The process determines which shelf your top-selling
product should be displayed on, the number of facings it gets, and what best to surround it with. It
results in graphical picture or map of the allotted shelf space along with a specification of the facing
and deep.
Plant Finished Goods: Finished goods inventory held at the end manufacturing location.
PLU: See Price Look-Up
PM: See Preventative Maintenance
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 113 of 167
PO: See Purchase Order
POD: See Proof of Delivery
Point-of-Purchase (POP): A retail sales term referring to the area where a sale occurs, such as the
checkout counter. POP is also used to refer to the displays and other sales promotion tools located at
a checkout counter.
Point of Sale (POS): 1) The time and place at which a sale occurs, such as a cash register in a retail
operation, or the order confirmation screen in an on-line session. Supply chain partners are interested
in capturing data at the POS, because it is a true record of the sale rather than being derived from
other information such as inventory movement. 2) Also a national network of merchant terminals, at
which customers can use client cards and personal security codes to make purchases. Transactions
are directed against client deposit accounts. POS terminals are sophisticated cryptographic devices,
with complex key management processes. POS standards draw on ABM network experiences and
possess extremely stringent security requirements.
Point of Sale Information: Price and quantity data from retail locations as sales transactions occur.
Point-of-Use Inventory: Material used in production processes that is physically stored where it is
consumed.
Poka Yoke (mistake-proof): The application of simple techniques that prevent process quality
failure. A mechanism that either prevents a mistake from being made or makes the mistake obvious
at a glance.
Police Powers: The United States constitutionally granted right or the states to establish regulations
to protect the health and welfare of its citizens; truck weight, speed, length, and height laws are
examples.
Pooling: A shipping term for the practice of combining shipment from multiple shippers into a
truckload in order to reduce shipping charges.
POP: See Point-of-Purchase
Port: A harbor where ships will anchor.
Port Authority: A state or local government that owns, operates, or otherwise provides wharf, dock,
and other terminal investments at ports.
Port of Discharge: Port where vessel is off loaded.
Port of Entry: A port at which foreign goods are admitted into the receiving country.
Port of Loading: Port where cargo is loaded aboard the vessel.
Portal: Websites that serve as starting points to other destinations or activities on the Internet.
Initially thought of as a "home base" type of web page, portals attempt to provide all Internet needs
in one location. Portals commonly provide services such as e-mail, online chat forums, shopping,
searching, content, and news feeds.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 114 of 167
POS: See Point of Sale
Possession Utility: The value created by marketing’s effort to increase the desire to possess a good
or benefit from a service.
Post-Deduct Inventory Transaction Processing: A method of inventory bookkeeping where the
book (computer) inventory of components is reduced after issue. When compared to a real-time
process, this approach has the disadvantage of a built-in differential between the book record and
what is physically in stock. Consumption can be based on recorded actual use, or calculated using
finished quantity received times the standard BOM quantity (backflush). Also see: Backflush
Postponement: The delay of final activities (i.e., assembly, production, packaging, etc.) until the
latest possible time. A strategy used to eliminate excess inventory in the form of finished goods which
may be packaged in a variety of configurations.
PPB: See Part Period Balancing
Pre-Deduct Inventory Transaction Processing: A method of inventory bookkeeping where the
book (computer) inventory of components is reduced before issue, at the time a scheduled receipt for
their parents or assemblies is created via a bill-of-material explosion. When compared to a real-time
process, this approach has the disadvantage of a built-in differential between the book record and
what is physically in stock.
Pre-Expediting: The function of following up on open orders before the scheduled delivery date, to
ensure the timely delivery of materials in the specified quantity.
Prepaid: A freight term, which indicates that charges are to be paid by the shipper. Prepaid shipping
charges may be added to the customer invoice, or the cost may be bundled into the pricing for the
product.
Present Value: Today's value of future cash flows, discounted at an appropriate rate.
Predictive Maintenance: Practices that seek to prevent unscheduled machinery downtime by
collecting and analyzing data on equipment conditions. The analysis is then used to predict time-tofailure,
plan maintenance, and restore machinery to good operating condition. Predictive maintenance
systems typically measure parameters on machine operations, such as vibration, heat, pressure,
noise, and lubricant condition. In conjunction with computerized maintenance management systems
(CMMS), predictive maintenance enables repair-work orders to be released automatically, repair-parts
inventories checked, or routine maintenance scheduled.
Preventative Maintenance (PM): Regularly scheduled maintenance activities performed in order to
reduce or eliminate unscheduled equipment failures and downtime.
Price Erosion: The decrease in price point and profit margin for a product or service, which occurs
over time due to the effect of increased competition or commoditization.
Price Look-Up (PLU): Used for retail products sold loose, bunched or in bulk (to identify the different
types of fruit, say). As opposed to UPC (Universal Product Codes) for packaged, fixed weight retail
items. A PLU code contains 4-5 digits in total. The PLU is entered before an item is weighed to
determine a price.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 115 of 167
Primary-Business Test: A test used by the ICC to determine if a trucking operation is bona fide
private transportation; the private trucking operation must be incidental to and in the furtherance of
the primary business of the firm.
Primary highways: Highways that connect lesser populated cities with major cities.
Primary Manufacturing Strategy: Your company’s dominant manufacturing strategy. The Primary
Manufacturing Strategy generally accounts for 80-plus % of a company’s product volume. According
to a study by Pittiglio Rabin Todd & McGrath (PRTM), approximately 73% of all companies use a
make-to-stock strategy.
PRIME QR: Product Replenishment and Inventory Management Edge for Quick Response.
Private carrier: A carrier that provides transportation service to the firm and that owns or leases the
vehicles and does not charge a fee. Private motor carriers may haul at a fee for wholly-owned
subsidiaries.
Private Label: Products that are designed, produced, controlled by, and which carry the name of the
store or a name owned by the store; also known as a store brand or dealer brand. An example would
be Wal-Mart's "Sam's Choice" products.
Private Warehouse: A warehouse that is owned by the company using it.
Pro Number: Any progressive or serialized number applied for identification of freight bills, bills of
lading, etc.
Proactive: The strategy of understanding issues before they become apparent and presenting the
solution as a benefit to the customer, etc.
Process: A series of time-based activities that are linked to complete a specific output.
Process Benchmarking: Benchmarking a process (such as the pick, pack, and ship process) against
organizations known to be the best in class in this process. Process benchmarking is usually conducted
on firms outside of the organization’s industry. Also see: Benchmarking, Best-in-Class, Competitive
Benchmarking
Process Improvement: Designs or activities, which improve quality or reduce costs, often through
the elimination of waste or non-value-added tasks.
Process Manufacturing: Production that adds value by mixing, separating, forming, and/or
performing chemical reactions. It may be done in a batch, continuous, or mixed batch/continuous
mode. Products in this manufacturing group include: foods, petrochemicals, bottling, chemicals, etc.
Process manufacturing frequently generates co-products and by-products as an outcome in addition to
the primary product being manufactured. An example would be the manufacture of petroleum
products, where multiple grades of lubricants and fuels are produced from a single run as well as nonusable
by-products such as sludge.
Process Yield: The resulting output from a process. An example would be a quantity of finished
product output from manufacturing processes.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 116 of 167
Procurement: The business functions of procurement planning, purchasing, inventory control, traffic,
receiving, incoming inspection, and salvage operations. Synonym: Purchasing
Procurement Services Provider (PSP): A services firm that integrates procurement technologies
with product, sourcing, and supply management expertise, to provide outsourced procurement
solutions. A PSP serves as an extension of an organization's existing procurement infrastructure,
managing the processes and spending categories and procurement processes that the organization
feels it has opportunities for improvement but lacks the internal expertise to manage effectively.
Product: Something that has been or is being produced.
Product Characteristics: All of the elements that define a product’s character, such as size, shape,
weight, etc.
Product Configurator: A system, generally rule-based, to be used in design-to-order, engineer-toorder,
or make-to-order environments where numerous product variations exist. Product
configurators perform intelligent modeling of the part or product attributes and often create solid
models, drawings, bills of material, and cost estimates that can be integrated into CAD/CAM and MRP
II systems as well as sales order entry systems.
Product ID: A method of identifying a product without using a full description. These can be different
for each document type and must, therefore, be captured and related to the document in which they
were used. They must then be related to each other in context (also known as SKU, Item Code or
Number, or other such name).
Product Family: A group of products with similar characteristics, often used in production planning
(or sales and operations planning).
Production Calendar: See Manufacturing Calendar
Production Capacity: Measure of how much production volume may be experienced over a set
period of time.
Production Forecast: A projected level of customer demand for a feature (option, accessory, etc.) of
a make-to-order or an assemble-to-order product. Used in two-level master scheduling, it is calculated
by netting customer backlog against an overall family or product line master production schedule and
then factoring this product’s available-to-promise by the option percentage in a planning bill of
material. Also see: Assemble-to-Order, Planning Bill of Material, Two-Level Master Schedule
Production Line: A series of pieces of equipment dedicated to the manufacture of a specific number
of products or families.
Production Planning and Scheduling: The systems that enable creation of detailed optimized plans
and schedules taking into account the resource, material, and dependency constraints to meet the
deadlines.
Production-Related Material: Production-related materials are those items classified as material
purchases and included in Cost of Goods Sold as raw material purchases.
Productivity: A measure of efficiency of resource utilization; defined as the sum of the outputs
divided by the sum of the inputs.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 117 of 167
Profit Ratio: The percentage of profit to sales—that is, profit divided by sales.
Profit Before Interest and Tax (PBIT): The financial profit generated prior to the deduction of
taxes and interest due on loans. Also called operating profit.
Profitability Analysis: The analysis of profit derived from cost objects with the view to improve or
optimize profitability. Multiple views may be analyzed, such as market segment, customer, distribution
channel, product families, products, technologies, platforms, regions, manufacturing capacity, etc.
Profitable to Promise: This is effectively a promise to deliver a certain order on agreed terms,
including price and delivery. Profitable-to-Promise (PTP) is the logical evolution of Available-to-Promise
(ATP) and Capable-to-Promise (CTP). While the first two are necessary for profitability, they are not
sufficient. For enterprises to survive in a competitive environment, profit optimization is a vital
technology.
Pro-Forma: A type of quotation or offer that may be used when first negotiating the sales of goods or
services. If the pro-forma is accepted, then the terms and conditions of the pro-forma may become
the request.
Pro Forma Invoice: An invoice, forwarded by the seller of goods prior to shipment, that advises the
buyer of the particulars and value of the goods. Usually required by the buyer in order to obtain an
import permit or letter of credit.
Pro Number: Any progressive or serialized number applied for identification of freight bills, bills of
lading, etc.
Profitability Analysis: The analysis of profit derived from cost objects with the view to improve or
optimize profitability. Multiple views may be analyzed, such as market segment, customer, distribution
channel, product families, products, technologies, platforms, regions, manufacturing capacity, etc.
Promotion: The act of selling a product at a reduced price, or a buy one - get one free offer, for the
purpose of increasing sales.
Proof of Delivery (POD): Information supplied by the carrier containing the name of the person who
signed for the shipment, the time and date of delivery, and other shipment delivery related
information. POD is also sometimes used to refer to the process of printing materials just prior to
shipment (Print on Demand).
Proportional Rate: A rate lower than the regular rate for shipments that have prior or subsequent
moves; used to overcome competitive disadvantages of combination rates.
Protocol: Communication standards that determine message content and format, enabling uniformity
of transmissions.
Pseudo Bill of Materials: See Phantom Bill of Materials
PSP: See Procurement Services Provider
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 118 of 167
Public Warehouse: A business that provides short or long-term storage to a variety of businesses
usually on a month-to-month basis. A public warehouse will generally use their own equipment and
staff however agreements may be made where the client either buys or subsidizes equipment. Public
warehouse fees are usually a combination of storage fees (per pallet or actual square footage) and
transaction fees (inbound and outbound). Public warehouses are most often used to supplement space
requirements of a private warehouse. See also Contract warehouse and 3PL.
Public Warehouse Receipt: The basic document issued by a public warehouse manager that is the
receipt for the goods given to the warehouse manager. The receipt can be either negotiable or
nonnegotiable.
Pull Signal: A signal from a using operation that triggers the issue of raw material.
Pull or Pull-through distribution: Supply-chain action initiated by the customer. Traditionally, the
supply chain was pushed; manufacturers produced goods and "pushed" them through the supply
chain, and the customer had no control. In a pull environment, a customer's purchase sends
replenishment information back through the supply chain from retailer to distributor to manufacturer,
so goods are "pulled" through the supply chain.
Pull Ordering System: A system in which each warehouse controls its own shipping requirements by
placing individual orders for inventory with the central distribution center. A replenishment system
where inventory is "pulled" into the supply chain (or "demand chain" by POS systems, or ECR
programs). Associated with "build to order" systems.
Purchase Order (PO): The purchaser’s authorization used to formalize a purchase transaction with a
supplier. The physical form or electronic transaction a buyer uses when placing order for merchandise.
Purchase Price Discount: A pricing structure in which the seller offers a lower price if the buyer
purchases a larger quantity.
Purchasing: The functions associated with buying the goods and services required by the firm.
Pure Raw Material: A raw material that does not lose weight in processing.
Push Back Rack: Utilizing wheels in the rack structure, this rack system allows palletized goods and
materials to be stored by being pushed up a gently graded ramp. Stored materials are allowed to flow
down the ramp to the aisle. This rack configuration allows for deep storage on each rack level.
Push Distribution: The process of building product and pushing it into the distribution channel
without receiving any information regarding requirements. Also see: Pull or Pull-Through Distribution
Push Ordering System: A situation in which a firm makes inventory deployment decisions at the
central distribution center and ships to its individual warehouses accordingly.
Push Technology: Webcasting (push technology) is the prearranged updating of news, weather, or
other selected information on a computer user's desktop interface through periodic and generally
unobtrusive transmission over the World Wide Web (including the use of the Web protocol on
Intranet). Webcasting uses so-called push technology in which the Web server ostensibly “pushes”
information to the user rather than waiting until the user specifically requests it.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 119 of 167
Put Away: Removing the material from the dock (or other location of receipt), transporting the
material to a storage area, placing that material in a staging area, and then moving it to a specific location
and recording the movement and identification of the location where the material has been
placed.
Put-to-Light: A method that uses lights to direct the placement of materials. Most often used in
batch picking to designate the tote to place picked item into.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 120 of 167
Q
QC: See Quality Control
QFD: See Quality Function Deployment
QR: See Quick Response
Qualifier: A data element, which identifies or defines a related element, set of elements or a
segment. The qualifier contains a code from a list of approved codes.
Qualitative Forecasting Techniques: In forecasting, an approach that is based on intuitive or
judgmental evaluation. It is used generally when data are scarce, not available, or no longer relevant.
Common types of qualitative techniques include: personal insight, sales force estimates, panel
consensus, market research, visionary forecasting, and the Delphi method. Examples include
developing long-range projections and new product introduction.
Quality: Conformance to requirements or fitness for use. Quality can be defined through five
principal approaches:
1. Transcendent quality is an ideal, a condition of excellence
2. Product-based quality is based on a product attribute
3. User-based quality is fitness for use
4. Manufacturing-based quality is conformance to requirements
5. Value-based quality is the degree of excellence at an acceptable price.
Also, quality has two major components:
a. quality of conformance—quality is defined by the absence of defects, and
b. quality of design—quality is measured by the degree of customer satisfaction with a product’s
characteristics and features.
Quality Circle: In quality management, a small group of people who normally work as a unit and
meet frequently to uncover and solve problems concerning the quality of items produced, process
capability, or process control. Also see: Small Group Improvement activity
Quality Control (QC): The management function that attempts to ensure that the foods or services
manufactured or purchased meet the product or service specifications
Quality Function Deployment (QFD): A structured method for translating user requirements into
detailed design specifications using a continual stream of ‘what-how’ matrices. QFD links the needs of
the customer (end user) with design, development, engineering, manufacturing, and service functions.
It helps organizations seek out both spoken and unspoken needs, translate these into actions and
designs, and focus various business functions toward achieving this common goal.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 121 of 167
Quantitative Forecasting Techniques: An approach to forecasting where historical demand data is
used to project future demand. Extrinsic and intrinsic techniques are typically used. Also see:
Extrinsic Forecasting Method, Intrinsic Forecasting Method
Quantity Based Order System: See Fixed Reorder Quantity Inventory Model
Quarantine: In quality management, the setting aside of items from availability for use or sale until
all required quality tests have been performed and conformance certified. In a best practice process,
items in quarantine are tagged, logged, and kept in a secure area pending disposition.
Quick Response (QR): A strategy widely adopted by general merchandise and soft lines retailers
and manufacturers to reduce retail out-of-stocks, forced markdowns and operating expenses. These
goals are accomplished through shipping accuracy and reduced response time. QR is a partnership
strategy in which suppliers and retailers work together to respond more rapidly to the consumer by
sharing point-of-sale scan data, enabling both to forecast replenishment needs.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 122 of 167
R
Rack: A storage device for handling material in pallets. A rack usually provides storage for pallets
arranged in vertical sections with one or more pallets to a tier. Some racks accommodate more than
one-pallet-deep storage. Some racks are static, meaning that the rack contents remain in a fixed
position until physically moved. Some racks are designed with a sloped shelf to allow products to
“flow” down as product in the front is removed. Replenishment of product on a flow rack may be from
the rear, or the front in a “push back” manner.
Racking: A function performed by a rack-jobber, a full-function intermediary who performs all regular
warehousing functions and some retail functions, typically stocking a display rack. Also a definition
that is applied to the hardware which is used to build racks.
Radio Frequency (RF): A form of wireless communications that lets users relay information via
electromagnetic energy waves from a terminal to a base station, which is linked in turn to a host
computer. The terminals can be place at a fixed station, mounted on a forklift truck, or carried in the
worker's hand. The base station contains a transmitter and receiver for communication with the
terminals. RF systems use either narrow-band or spread-spectrum transmissions. Narrow-band data
transmissions move along a single limited radio frequency, while spread-spectrum transmissions move
across several different frequencies. When combined with a bar-code system for identifying inventory
items, a radio-frequency system can relay data instantly, thus updating inventory records in so-called
"real time."
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID): The use of radio frequency technology including RFID tags
and tag readers to identify objects. Objects may include virtually anything physical, such as
equipment, pallets of stock, or even individual units of product. RFID tags can be active or passive.
Active tags contain a power source and emit a signal constantly. Passive tags receive power from the
radio waves sent by the scanner / reader. The inherent advantages of RFID over bar code technology
are: 1) the ability to be read over longer distances, 2) the elimination of requirement for “line of sight”
reads, 3) added capacity to contain information, and 4) RFID tag data can be updated / changed.
Ramp Rate: A statement which quantifies how quickly you grow or expand an operation Growth
trajectory. Can refer to sales, profits or margins.
Random-Location Storage: A storage technique in which parts are placed in any space that is
empty when they arrive at the storeroom. Although this random method requires the use of a locator
file to identify part locations, it often requires less storage space than a fixed-location storage method.
Also see: Fixed-Location Storage
Rate-Based Scheduling: A method for scheduling and producing based on a periodic rate, e.g.,
daily, weekly, or monthly. This method has traditionally been applied to high-volume and process
industries. The concept has recently been applied within job shops using cellular layouts and mixedmodel
level schedules where the production rate is matched to the selling rate.
Rate Basis Number: The distance between two rate basis points.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 123 of 167
Rate Basis Point: The major shipping point in a local area; all points in the local area are considered
to be the rate basis point.
Rate Bureau: A group of carriers that get together to establish joint rates, to divide joint revenues
and claim liabilities, and the publish tariffs. Rate bureaus have published single line rates, which were
prohibited in 1984.
Rationing: The allocation of product among customers during periods of short supply. When price is
used to allocate product, it is allocated to those willing to pay the most.
Raw Materials (RM): Crude or processed material that can be converted by manufacturing,
processing, or combination into a new and useful product.
Real-Time: The processing of data in a business application as it happens - as contrasted with storing
data for input at a later time (batch processing).
Reasonable Rate: A rate that is high enough to cover the carrier’s cost but not too high to enable the
carrier to realize monopolistic profits.
Recapture Clause: A provision of the 1920 Transportation Act that provided for self-help financing
for railroads. Railroads that earned more than the prescribed return contributed one-half of the
excess to the fund from which the ICC made loans to less profitable railroads. The Recapture Clause
was repealed in 1933.
Receiving: The function encompassing the physical receipt of material, the inspection of the incoming
shipment for conformance with the purchase order (quantity and damage), the identification and
delivery to destination, and the preparation of receiving reports.
Receiving Dock: Distribution center location where the actual physical receipt of the purchased
material from the carrier occurs.
Reconsignment: A carrier service that permits changing the destination and/or consignee after the
shipment has reached its originally billed destination and paying the through rate from origin to final
destination.
Reed-Bulwinkle Act: Legalized joint rate making by common carriers through rate bureaus;
extended antitrust immunity to carriers participating in a rate bureau.
Refrigerated Carriers: Truckload carriers designed to keep perishables good refrigerated. The food
industry typically uses this type of carrier.
Reefer: A term used for refrigerated vehicles.
Reengineering: 1) A fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve
dramatic improvements in performance. 2) A term used to describe the process of making (usually)
significant and major revisions or modifications to business processes. 3) Also called Business Process
Reengineering.
Regeneration MRP: An MRP processing approach where the master production schedule is totally
reexploded down through all bills of material, to maintain valid priorities. New requirements and
planned orders are completely recalculated or “regenerated” at that time.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 124 of 167
Regional Carrier: A for-hire air carrier, usually certificated, that has annual

برچسب ها: TERMS and GLOSSARY Updated October 2006 Definitions compiled by: Kate Vitasek Supply Chain Visions www.scvisions.com Bellevue، Washington Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions، nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted. Page 112 of 167 Planned Date: The date an operation، such as a receipt، shipment، or delivery of an order is planned to occur. Planned Order: A suggested order quantity، release date،  

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SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 102 of 167
Order Complete Manufacture to Customer Receipt of Order: Average lead time from when an
order is ready for shipment to customer receipt of order, including the following sub-elements:
pick/pack time, preparation for shipment, total transit time for all components to consolidation point,
consolidation, queue time, and additional transit time to customer receipt. (An element of Order
Fulfillment Lead-Time).
Note: Determined separately for Make-to-Order, Configure/Package-to-Order,
Engineer-to-Order and Make-to-Stock products.
Order Consolidation Profile: The activities associated with filling a customer order by bringing
together in one physical place all of the line items ordered by the customer. Some of these may come
directly from the production line others may be picked from stock.
Order Cycle: The time and process involved from the placement of an order to the receipt of the
shipment.
Order Entry and Scheduling: The process of receiving orders from the customer and entering them
into a company’s order processing system. Orders can be received through phone, fax, or electronic
media. Activities may include “technically” examining orders to ensure an orderable configuration and
provide accurate price, checking the customer’s credit and accepting payment (optionally), identifying
and reserving inventory (both on hand and scheduled), and committing and scheduling a delivery
date.
Order Entry Complete to Start Manufacture: Average lead-time from completion of customer
order to the time manufacturing begins, including the following sub-elements: order wait time,
engineering and design time. (An element of Order Fulfillment Lead-Time).
Note: Determined separately for Make-to-Order, Configure/Package-to-Order, and
Engineer-to-Order products. Does not apply to Make-to-Stock products.
Order Fulfillment Lead Times: Average, consistently achieved lead-time from customer order
origination to customer order receipt, for a particular manufacturing process strategy (Make-to-Stock,
Make-to-Order, Configure/Package-to-Order, Engineer-to-Order). Excess lead-time created by orders
placed in advance of typical lead times (Blanket Orders, Annual Contracts, Volume Purchase
Agreements, etc.), is excluded. (An element of Total Supply Chain Response Time)
Calculation:
Total average lead time from: [Customer signature/authorization to order receipt] + [Order
receipt to completion of order entry] + [Completion of order entry to start manufacture] + [Start
manufacture to complete manufacture] + [Complete manufacture to customer receipt of order] +
[Customer receipt of order to installation complete]
Note: The elements of order fulfillment lead time are additive. Not all elements apply
to all manufacturing process strategies. For example, for Make-to-Stock products, the
lead-time from Start manufacture to complete manufacture equals 0.
Order Interval: The time period between the placement of orders.
Order Level System: See Fixed Reorder Cycle Inventory Model
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 103 of 167
Order Management: The planning, directing, monitoring, and controlling of the processes related to
customer orders, manufacturing orders, and purchase orders. Regarding customer orders, order
management includes order promising, order entry, order pick, pack and ship, billing, and
reconciliation of the customer account. Regarding manufacturing orders, order management includes
order release, routing, manufacture, monitoring, and receipt into stores or finished goods inventories.
Regarding purchasing orders, order management includes order placement, monitoring, receiving,
acceptance, and payment of supplier.
Order Management Costs: One of the elements comprising a company's total supply-chain
management costs. These costs consist of the following:
1. New Product Release Phase-In and Maintenance: This includes costs associated with releasing
new products to the field, maintaining released products, assigning product ID, defining
configurations and packaging, publishing availability schedules, release letters and updates,
and maintaining product databases.
2. Create Customer Order: This includes costs associated with creating and pricing configurations
to order and preparing customer order documents.
3. Order Entry and Maintenance: This includes costs associated with maintaining the customer
database, credit check, accepting new orders, and adding them to the order system as well as
later order modifications.
4. Contract/Program and Channel Management: This includes costs related to contract
negotiation, monitoring progress, and reporting against the customer's contract, including
administration of performance or warranty related issues.
5. Installation Planning: This includes costs associated with installation engineering, scheduling
and modification, handling cancellations, and planning the installation.
6. Order Fulfillment: This includes costs associated with order processing, inventory allocation,
ordering from internal or external suppliers, shipment scheduling, order status reporting, and
shipment initiation.
7. Distribution: This includes costs associated with warehouse space and management, finished
goods receiving and stocking, processing shipments, picking and consolidating, selecting
carrier, and staging products/systems.
8. Transportation, Outbound Freight and Duties: This includes costs associated with all company
paid freight duties from point-of-manufacture to end-customer or channel.
9. Installation: This includes costs associated with verification of site preparation, installation,
certification, and authorization of billing.
10. Customer Invoicing/Accounting: This includes costs associated with invoicing, processing
customer payments, and verification of customer receipt.
Order Picking: Selecting or “picking” the required quantity of specific products for movement to a
packaging area (usually in response to one or more shipping orders) and documenting that the
material was moved from one location to shipping. Also see: Batch Picking, Discrete Order Picking,
Zone Picking
Order Point – Order Quantity System: The inventory method that places an order for a lot
whenever the quantity on hand is reduced to a predetermined level known as the order point. Also
see: Fixed Reorder Quantity Inventory Model, Hybrid system
Order Processing: Activities associated with filling customer orders.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 104 of 167
Order Promising: The process of making a delivery commitment, i.e., answering the question, When
can you ship? For make-to-order products, this usually involves a check of uncommitted material and
availability of capacity, often as represented by the master schedule available-to-promise. Also see:
Available-to-Promise
Order Receipt to Order Entry Complete: Average lead-time from receipt of a customer order to the
time that order entry is complete, including the following sub-elements: order revalidation, product
configuration check, credit check, and order scheduling.
Note: Determined separately for Make-to-Order, Configure/Package-to-Order,
Engineer-to-Order, and Make-to-Stock products.
Origin: The place where a shipment begins its movement.
Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM): A manufacturer that buys and incorporates another
supplier’s products into its own products. Also, products supplied to the original equipment
manufacturer or sold as part of an assembly. For example, an engine may be sold to an OEM for use
as that company’s power source for its generator units.
OS&D: See Over, Short and Damaged
OTIF: See On Time In Full
Out Of Stock: The state of not having inventory at a location and available for distribution or for sell
to the consumer (zero inventory).
Out of Stocks: See Stock Outs
Outbound Consolidation: Consolidation of a number of small shipments for various customers into a
larger load. The large load is then shipped to a location near the customers where it is broken down
and then the small shipments are distributed to the customers. This can reduce overall shipping
charges where many small packet or parcel shipments are handled each day. Also see: Break Bulk
Outbound Logistics: The process related to the movement and storage of products from the end of
the production line to the end user.
Outlier: A data point that differs significantly from other data for a similar phenomenon. For
example, if the average sales for a product were 10 units per month, and one month the product had
sales of 500 units, this sales point might be considered an outlier. Also see: Abnormal Demand
Outpartnering: The process of involving the supplier in a close partnership with the firm and its
operations management system. Outpartnering is characterized by close working relationships
between buyers and suppliers, high levels of trust, mutual respect, and emphasis on joint problem
solving and cooperation. With outpartnering, the supplier is viewed not as an alternative source of
goods and services (as observed under outsourcing) but rather as a source of knowledge, expertise,
and complementary core competencies. Outpartnering is typically found during the early stages of the
product life cycle when dealing with products that are viewed as critical to the strategic survival of the
firm. Also see: Customer-Supplier Partnership
Outsource: To utilize a third-party provider to perform services previously performed in-house.
Examples include manufacturing of products and call center/customer support.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 105 of 167
Outsourced Cost of Goods Sold: Operations performed on raw material outside of the responding
entity's organization that would typically be considered internal to the entity's manufacturing cycle.
Outsourced cost of goods sold captures the value of all outsourced activities that roll up as cost of
goods sold. Some examples of commonly outsourced areas are assembly by subcontract houses, test,
metal finishing or painting, and specialized assembly process.
Overpack: The practice of using a large box or carton to contain multiple smaller packages which are
all going to the same destination in order to achieve a reduced overall shipping cost vs. the individual
packages.
Over, short and damaged (OS&D): This is typically a report issued at warehouse when goods are
damaged. Used to file claim with carrier.
Over-the-road: A motor carrier operation that reflects long-distance, intercity moves; the opposite of
local operations.
Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE): A measure of overall equipment effectiveness that takes
into account machine availability & performance as well as output quality.
Owner-Operator: A trucking operation in which the opener of the truck is also the driver.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 106 of 167
P
P2P: See Path to Profitability
P2P: See Peer to Peer
Pack Out: In a fulfillment environment this refers to the operations involved in packaging and
palletizing individual units of product for introduction into the warehouse distribution environment.
For example, a contract 3PL may received or assemble units of product which need to be placed into
retail packaging, then overpacked with a carton and then palletized.
Package to Order: A production environment in which a good or service can be packaged after
receipt of a customer order. The item is common across many different customers; packaging
determines the end product.
Packing and Marking: The activities of packing for safe shipping and unitizing one or more items of
an order, placing them into an appropriate container, and marking and labeling the container with
customer shipping destination data, as well as other information that may be required.
Packing List: List showing merchandise packed and all particulars. Normally prepared by shipper but
not required by carriers. Copy is sent to consignee to help verify shipment received. The physical
equivalent of the electronic Advanced Ship Notice (ASN).
Pallet: The platform which cartons are stacked on and then used for shipment or movement as a
group. Pallets may be made of wood or composite materials.
Pallet Jack: Material handling equipment consisting of two broad parallel pallet forks on small wheels
used in the warehouse to move pallets of product, but not having the lifting capability of a forklift. It
may be a motorized unit guided by an operator who stands on a platform; or it may be a motorized or
manual unit guided by an operator who is walking behind or beside it. Comes as a "single" (one pallet)
or "double" (two pallets).
Pallet Rack: A single or multi-level structural storage system that is utilized to support high stacking
of single items or palletized loads.
Pallet Tag: The bar coded sticker that is placed on a unit load or partial load, typically at receiving.
The pallet tag can be scanned with an RF gun.
Pallet Ticket: A label to track pallet-sized quantities of end items produced to identify the specific sub
lot with specifications determined by periodic sampling and analysis during production.
Pallet Wrapping Machine: A machine that wraps a pallet’s contents in stretch-wrap to ensure safe
shipment.
Parcel Shipment: Parcels include small packages like those typically handled by providers such as
UPS and FedEx.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 107 of 167
Pareto: A means of sorting data for example. For example, number of quality faults by frequency of
occurrence. An analysis that compares cumulative percentages of the rank ordering of costs, cost
drivers, profits or other attributes to determine whether a minority of elements have a
disproportionate impact. Another example, identifying that 20 percent of a set of independent
variables is responsible for 80 percent of the effect. Also see: 80/20 Rule
Part Period Balancing (PPB): In forecasting, a dynamic lot-sizing technique that uses the same
logic as the least total cost method, but adds a routine called look ahead/look back. When the look
ahead/look back feature is used, a lot quantity is calculated, and before it is firmed up, the next or the
previous period’s demands are evaluated to determine whether it would be economical to include
them in the current lot. Also see: Discrete Order Quantity, Dynamic lot sizing
Part Standardization: A program for planned elimination of superficial, accidental, and deliberate
differences between similar parts in the interest of reducing part and supplier proliferation. A typical
goal of part standardization is to reduce costs by reducing the number of parts that the company
needs to manage.
Passenger-Mile: A measure of output for passenger transportation; it reflects the number of
passengers transported and the distance traveled; a multiplication of passengers hauled and distance
traveled.
Password: A private code required to gain access to a computer, an application program, or service.
Path to Profitability (P2P): The step-by-step model to generate earnings.
Pay-on-Use: Pay-on-Use is a process where payment is initiated by product consumption, i.e.,
consignment stock based on withdrawal of product from inventory. This process is popular with many
European companies.
Payment: The transfer of money, or other agreed upon medium, for provision of goods or services.
Payroll: Total of all fully burdened labor costs, including wage, fringe, benefits, overtime, bonus, and
profit sharing.
PBIT: See Profit Before Interest and Tax
PBL: See Performance Based Logistics
P & D: Pickup and delivery.
PDA: See Personal Digital Assistant
PDCA: See Plan-Do-Check-Action
Peak Demand: The time period during which the quantity demanded is greater than during any other
comparable time period.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 108 of 167
Peer to Peer (P2P): A computer networking environment which allows individual computers to share
resources and data without passing through an intermediate network server.
Pegged Requirement: An MRP component requirement that shows the next-level parent item (or
customer order) as the source of the demand.
Pegging: A technique in which a ERP system traces demand for a product by date, quantity, and
warehouse location.
Percent of Fill: Number of lines or quantity actually shipped as a percent of the original order.
Synonym: Customer Service Ratio.
Per Diem: 1) The rate of payment for use by one railroad of the cars of another. 2) A daily rate of
reimbursement for expenses.
Perfect Order: The definition of a perfect order is one which meets all of the following criteria:
• Delivered complete, with all items on the order in the quantity requested
• Delivered on time to customer’s request date, using the customer’s definition of on-time
delivery
• Delivered with complete and accurate documentation supporting the order, including packing
slips, bills of lading, and invoices
• Delivered in perfect condition with the correct configuration, customer ready, without damage,
and faultlessly installed (as applicable)
Performance-Based Logistics (PBL): A U.S. Government program that describes the purchase of
services and support as an integrated, affordable, performance package designed to optimize system
readiness and meet performance goals for a weapon system through long-term support arrangements
with clear lines of authority and responsibility.
Performance and Event Management Systems: The systems that report on the key
measurements in the supply chain -- inventory days of supply, delivery performance, order cycle
times, capacity use, etc. Using this information to identify causal relationships to suggest actions in
line with the business goals.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 109 of 167
Performance Measures: Indicators of the work performed and the results achieved in an activity,
process, or organizational unit. Performance measures should be both non-financial and financial.
Performance measures enable periodic comparisons and benchmarking. For example, a common
performance measure for a distribution center is % of order fill rate. Also see: Performance
Measurement Program
Attributes of good performance measurement include the following:
1. Measures only what is important: The measure focuses on key aspects of process
performance
2. Can be collected economically: Processes and activities are designed to easily capture the
relevant information
3. Are visible: The measure and its causal effects are readily available to everyone who is
measured
4. Is easy to understand: The measure conveys at a glance what it is measuring and how it is
derived
5. Is process oriented: The measure makes the proper trade-offs among utilization, productivity
and performance
6. Is defined and mutually understood. The measure has been defined and mutually understood
by all key parties (internal and external)
7. Facilitates trust: The measure validates the participation among various parties and
discourages “game playing”
8. Are usable: The measure is used to show progress and not just data that is “collected”.
Indicated performance vs. data
Performance Measurement Program: A performance measurement program goes beyond just
having performance metrics in place. Many companies do not realize the full benefit of their
performance metrics because they often do not have all of the necessary elements in place that
support their metrics. Also see: Performance Measures, Dashboard, Scorecard, Key Performance
Indicator
Typical characteristics of a good performance measurement program include the following:
• Metrics that are aligned to strategy and linked to the “shop floor” or line level workers
• A process and culture that drives performance and accountability to delivery performance
against key performance indicators.
• An incentive plan that is tied to performance goals, objectives and metrics
• Tools/technology in place to support easy data collection and use. This often includes the use
of a “dashboard” or “scorecard” to allow for ease of understanding and reporting against key
performance indicators.
Period Order Quantity: A lot-sizing technique under which the lot size is equal to the net
requirements for a given number of periods, e.g., weeks into the future. The number of periods to
order is variable, each order size equalizing the holding costs and the ordering costs for the interval.
Also see: Discrete Order Quantity, Dynamic Lot Sizing
Periodic Review System: See Fixed Reorder Cycle Inventory Model
Permit: A grant of authority to operate as a contract carrier.
Perpetual Inventory: An inventory record keeping system where each transaction in and out is
recorded and a new balance is computed. Perpetual inventory records may be kept manually on
paper logs or stock cards, or in a computer database.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 110 of 167
Personal Digital Assistant (PDA): A computer term for a handheld device that combines
computing, telephone/fax, and networking features. PDA examples include the Palm and Pocket PC
devices. A typical PDA can function as a cellular phone, fax sender, and personal organizer. Unlike
portable computers, most PDAs are pen-based, using a stylus rather than a keyboard for input. This
means that they also incorporate handwriting recognition features. Some PDAs can also react to voice
input by using voice recognition technologies. Some PDAs and networking software allow companies to
use PDAs in their warehouses to support wireless transaction processing and inquiries.
Personal Discrimination: Charging different rates to shippers with similar transportation
characteristics, or vice versa.
Phantom Bill of Material: A bill-of-material coding and structuring technique used primarily for
transient (nonstocked) subassemblies. For the transient item, lead time is set to zero and the order
quantity to lot-for-lot. A phantom bill of material represents an item that is physically built, but rarely
stocked, before being used in the next step or level of manufacturing. This permits MRP logic to drive
requirements straight through (blowthrough) the phantom item to its components, but the MRP
system usually retains its ability to net against any occasional inventories of the item. This technique
also facilitates the use of common bills of material for engineering and manufacturing. Synonym:
Pseudo Bill of Material. Also see: blowthrough
Physical Distribution: The movement and storage functions associated with finished goods from
manufacturing plants to warehouses and to customers; also, used synonymously with business
logistics.
Physical Supply: The movement and storage functions associated with raw materials from supply
sources to the manufacturing facility.
Pick-by-Light: A laser identifies the bin for the next item in the rack; when the picker completes the
pick, the bar code is scanned and the system then points the laser at the next bin.
Pick/Pack: Picking of product from inventory and packing into shipment containers.
Pick List: A list of items to be picked from stock in order to fill an order; the pick list generation and
the picking method can be quite sophisticated.
Pick on Receipt: Product is receipted and picked in one operation (movement); therefore the
product never actually touches the ground within the warehouse. It is unloaded from one vehicle and
re-loaded on an outbound vehicle. Related to Cross Docking
Pick-to-Clear: A method often used in warehouse management systems that directs picking to the
locations with the smallest quantities on hand.
Pick-to-Carton: Pick-to-carton logic uses item dimensions/weights to select the shipping carton prior
to the order picking process. Items are then picked directly into the shipping carton.
Pick-to-Light: Pick-to light systems consist of lights and LED displays for each pick location. The
system uses software to light the next pick and display the quantity to pick.
Pick-to-Trailer: Order-picking method where the order picker transports the materials directly from
the pick location to the trailer without any interim checking or staging steps.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 111 of 167
Pick-Up Order: A document indicating the authority to pick up cargo or equipment from a specific
location.
Picking: The operations involved in pulling products from storage areas to complete a customer
order.
Picking by Aisle: A method by which pickers pick all needed items in an aisle regardless of the items’
ultimate destination; the items must be sorted later.
Picking by Source: A method in which pickers successively pick all items going to a particular
destination regardless of the aisle in which each item is located.
Piggyback: Terminology used to describe a truck trailer being transported on a railroad flatcar.
Pin Lock: A hard piece of iron, formed to fit on a trailer’s pin, that locks in place with a key to prevent
an unauthorized person from moving the trailer.
Place Utility: A value created in a product by changing its location. Transportation creates place
utility.
Plaintext: Data before it has been encrypted or after it has been decrypted, e.g., an ASCII text file.
Plan Deliver: The development and establishment of courses of action over specified time periods
that represent a projected appropriation of supply resources to meet delivery requirements.
Plan-Do-Check-Action (PDCA):In quality management, a four-step process for quality
improvement. In the first step (plan), a plan to effect improvement is developed. In the second step
(do), the plan is carried out, preferably on a small scale. In the third step (check), the effects of the
plan are observed. In the last step (action), the results are studied to determine what was learned and
what can be predicted. The plan-do-check-act cycle is sometimes referred to as the Shewhart cycle
(because Walter A. Shewhart discussed the concept in his book Statistical Method from the Viewpoint
of Quality Control) and as the Deming circle (because W. Edwards Deming introduced the concept in
Japan; the Japanese subsequently called it the Deming circle). Synonyms: Shewhart Cycle. Also see:
Deming Circle
Plan Make: The development and establishment of courses of action over specified time periods that
represent a projected appropriation of production resources to meet production requirements.
Plan Source: The development and establishment of courses of action over specified time periods
that represent a projected appropriation of material resources to meet supply chain requirements.
Plan Stability: The difference between planned production and actual production, as a percentage of
planned production.
Calculation:
[(Sum of Monthly Production Plans) + (Sum of the absolute value of the difference between
planned and actual)]/[Sum of Monthly Production Plans]
Note: Base Production Plan is the three month removed plan
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 112 of 167
Planned Date: The date an operation, such as a receip

برچسب ها: SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS TERMS and GLOSSARY Updated October 2006 Definitions compiled by: Kate Vitasek Supply Chain Visions www.scvisions.com Bellevue، Washington Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions، nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted. Page 102 of 167 Order Complete Manufacture to Customer Receipt of Order: Average lead time from when an order is ready for shipment to customer receipt of order، including the following sub-elements: pick/pack time، preparation for shipment، total transit time for all components to consolidation point، consolidation،  

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SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 91 of 167
Manufacturing Calendar: A calendar used in inventory and production planning functions that
consecutively numbers only the working days so that the component and work order scheduling may
be done based on the actual number of workdays available. Synonyms: M-Day Calendar, Planning
Calendar, Production Calendar, Shop Calendar.
Manufacturing Capital Asset Value: The asset value of the "Manufacturing fixed assets" after
allowance for depreciation. Examples of equipment are SMT placement machines, conveyors, Auto
guided vehicles, robot cells, testers, X-ray solder machines, Burn-in chambers, Logic testers, Auto
packing equipment, PLC station controllers, Scanning equipment, PWB magazines.
Manufacturing Critical-Path Time (MCT): The typical amount of calendar time from when a
manufacturing order is created through the critical-path until the first, single piece of that order is
delivered to the customer.
Manufacture Cycle Time: The average time between commencement and completion of a
manufacturing process, as it applies to make-to-stock products.
Calculation:
[Average # of units in WIP] / [Average daily output in units]
Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES): Programs and systems that participate in shop floor
control, including programmed logic controllers and process control computers for direct and
supervisory control of manufacturing equipment; process information systems that gather historical
performance information, then generate reports; graphical displays; and alarms that inform
operations personnel what is going on in the plant currently and a very short history into the past.
Quality control information is also gathered and a laboratory information management system may be
part of this configuration to tie process conditions to the quality data that are generated. Thereby,
cause-and-effect relationships can be determined. The quality data at times affect the control
parameters that are used to meet product specifications either dynamically or off line.
Manufacturing Lead Time: The total time required to manufacture an item, exclusive of lower level
purchasing lead time. For make-to-order products, it is the length of time between the release of an
order to the production process and shipment to the final customer. For make-to-stock products, it is
the length of time between the release of an order to the production process and receipt into finished
goods inventory. Included here are order preparation time, queue time, setup time, run time, move
time, inspection time, and put-away time. Synonyms: Manufacturing Cycle Time. Also see: Lead Time
Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II): A method for the effective planning of all resources
of a manufacturing company. Ideally, it addresses operational planning in units, financial planning in
dollars, and has a simulation capability to answer what-if questions. It is made up of a variety of
processes, each linked together: business planning, production planning (sales and operations
planning), master production scheduling, material requirements planning, capacity requirements
planning, and the execution support systems for capacity and material. Output from these systems is
integrated with financial reports such as the business plan, purchase commitment report, shipping
budget, and inventory projections in dollars. Manufacturing resource planning is a direct outgrowth
and extension of closed-loop MRP.
Mapping: A computer term referring to diagramming data that is to be exchanged electronically,
including how it is to be used and what business management systems need it. Preliminary step for
developing an applications link. Performed by the functional manager responsible for a business
management system.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 92 of 167
Marginal Cost: The cost to produce one additional unit of output. The change in total variable cost
resulting from a one-unit change in output.
Marine Insurance: Insurance to protect against cargo loss and damage when shipping by water
transportation.
Maritime Administration: A federal agency that promotes the merchant marine, determines ocean
ship routes and services, and awards maritime subsidies.
Maritime Transportation Security Act (MTSA): Law passed in 2002 to create a comprehensive
national system of transportation security enhancements. The MTSA designated the U.S. Coast Guard
as the lead federal agency for maritime homeland security and requires federal agencies, ports, and
vessel owners to take numerous steps to upgrade security. The MTSA requires the Coast Guard to
develop national and regional area maritime transportation security plans and requires seaports,
waterfront terminals, and vessels to submit security and incident response plans to the Coast Guard
for approval. The MTSA also requires the Coast Guard to conduct antiterrorism assessments of certain
foreign ports.
Market Demand: In marketing, the total demand that would exist within a defined customer group in
a given geographical area during a particular time period given a known marketing program.
Market Dominance: In transportation rating this refers to the absence of effective competition for
railroads from other carriers and modes for the traffic to which the rate applies. The Staggers Act
stated that market dominance does not exist if the rate is below the revenue-to-variable-cost ratio of
160% in 1981 and 170% in 1983
Market Segment: A group of potential customers sharing some measurable characteristics based on
demographics, psychographics, lifestyle, geography, benefits, etc.
Market Share: The portion of the overall market demand for a specific product or service which is
provided by any single provider.
Market-Positioned Warehouse: Warehouse positioned to replenish customer inventory assortments
and to afford maximum inbound transport consolidation economies from inventory origin points with
relatively short-haul local delivery.
Marks and Numbers: Identifying marks and numbers affixed to or placed on goods used to identify a
shipment or parts of a shipment.
Marquis Partners: Key strategic relationships. This has emerged as perhaps the key competitive
advantage and barrier to entry of e-marketplaces. Get the big players in the fold first, offering equity
if necessary.
Marshaller or Marshalling Agent: This is a service unique to international trade and relates to an
individual or firm that specializes in one or more of the activities preceding Main Carriage, such as
consolidation, packing, marking, sorting of merchandise, inspection, storage, etc. References state
that Marshaling Agent, Consolidation Agent and Freight Forwarder all have the same meaning.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 93 of 167
Mass Customization: The creation of a high-volume product with large variety so that a customer
may specify his or her exact model out of a large volume of possible end items while manufacturing
cost is low because of the large volume. An example is a personal computer order in which the
customer may specify processor speed, memory size, hard disk size and speed, removable storage
device characteristics, and many other options when PCs are assembled on one line and at low cost.
Master Pack: A large box that is used to pack a number of smaller boxes or containers. Aids in
protecting the smaller cartons or packages and reduces the number of cartons to be handled during
the material handling process.
Master Production Schedule (MPS): The master level or top level schedule used to set the
production plan in a manufacturing facility.
Material Acquisition Costs: One of the elements comprising a company's total supply-chain
management costs. These costs consist of the following:
1. Materials (Commodity) Management and Planning: All costs associated with supplier sourcing,
contract negotiation and qualification, and the preparation, placement, and tracking of a
purchase order, including all costs related to buyer/planners.
2. Supplier Quality Engineering: The costs associated with the determination,
development/certification, and monitoring of suppliers' capabilities to fully satisfy the
applicable quality and regulatory requirements.
3. Inbound Freight and Duties: Freight costs associated with the movement of material from a
vendor to the buyer and the associated administrative tasks. Duties are those fees and taxes
levied by government for moving purchased material across international borders. Customs
broker fees should also be considered in this category.
4. Receiving and Put Away: All costs associated with taking possession of material and storing it.
Note that carrying costs are not a part of acquisition, and inspection is handled separately.
5. Incoming Inspection: All costs associated with the inspection and testing of received materials
to verify compliance with specifications.
6. Material Process and Component Engineering: Those tasks required to document and
communicate component specifications, as well as reviews to improve the manufacturability of
the purchased item.
7. Tooling: Those costs associated with the design, development, and depreciation of the tooling
required to produce a purchased item. A tooling cost would be incurred by a company if they
actually paid for equipment and/or maintenance for a contract manufacturer that makes their
product. Sometimes, there isn’t enough incentive for a contract manufacturer to upgrade
plant equipment to a level of quality that a company requires, so the company will pay for the
upgrades and maintenance to ensure high quality. May not be common in some industries
such as the Chemicals.
Material Index: The ratio of the sum of the localized raw material weights to the weight of the
finished product.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS): A document that is part of the materials information system
and accompanies the product. Prepared by the manufacturer, the MSDS provides information
regarding the safety and chemical properties and (if necessary) the long-term storage, handling, and
disposal of the product. Among other factors, the MSDS describes the hazardous components of a
product; how to treat leaks, spills, and fires; and how to treat improper human contact with the
product. Also see: Hazardous Materials
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 94 of 167
Materials Handling: The physical handling of products and materials between procurement and
shipping.
Materials Management: Inbound logistics from suppliers through the production process. The
movement and management of materials and products from procurement through production.
Materials planning: The materials management function that attempts to coordinate the supply of
materials with the demand for materials.
Materials Requirements Planning (MRP): A decision-making methodology used to determine the
timing and quantities of materials to purchase.
Matrix Organizational Structure: An organizational structure in which two (or more) channels of
command, budget responsibility, and performance measurement exist simultaneously. For example,
both product and functional forms of organization could be implemented simultaneously, that is, the
product and functional managers have equal authority and employees report to both managers.
MAX: The lowest inventory quantity that is desired at a ship to location or selling location. This
quantity will over-ride the forecast number if the forecast climbs above the MAX. Maximum stock
Maximum Inventory: The planned maximum allowable inventory for an item based on its planned
lot size and target safety stock.
Maximum Order Quantity: An order quantity modifier applied after the lot size has been calculated,
that limits the order quantity to a pre-established maximum.
m-Commerce: Mobile commerce applications involve using a mobile phone to carry out financial
transactions. This usually means making a payment for goods or transferring funds electronically.
Transferring money between accounts and paying for purchases are electronic commerce applications.
An emerging application, electronic commerce has been facilitated by developments in other areas in
the mobile world, such as dual slot phones and other smarter terminals and more standardized
protocols, which allow greater interactivity and therefore more sophisticate services.
MCT: See Manufacturing critical-path time
M-Day Calendar: See Manufacturing Calendar
Mean: The arithmetic average of a group of values. Syn: arithmetic mean
Measure: A number used to quantify a metric, showing the result of part of a process often resulting
from a simple count. Example: Number of units shipped.
Measurement Ton: Equals 40 cubic feet; used in water transportation rate making.
Median: The middle value in a set of measured values when the items are arranged in order of
magnitude. If there is no single middle value, the median is the mean of the two middle values.
Merge In Transit: The process of combining or "merging" shipments from multiple suppliers which
are going directly to the buyer or to the store, bypassing the seller. Effectively a "drop shipment" from
several vendors to one buyer, which is being combined at an intermediary point prior to delivery.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 95 of 167
Merger: The combination of two or more carriers into one company for the ownership, management,
and operation of the properties previously operated on a separate basis.
MES: See Manufacturing Execution Systems
Message: The EDIFACT term for a transaction set. A message is the collection of data, organized in
segments, exchanged by trading partners engaged in EDI. Typically, a message is an electronic
version of a document associated with a common business transaction, such as a purchase order or
shipping notice. A message begins with a message header segment, which identifies the start of the
message (e.g., the series of characters representing one purchase order). The message header
segment also carries the message type code, which identifies the business transaction type. EDIFACT's
message header segment is called UNH; in ANSI X12 protocol, the message header is called ST. A
message ends with a message trailer segment, which signals the end of the message (e.g., the end of
one purchase order). EDIFACT's message trailer is labeled UNT; the ANSI X12 message trailer is
referred to as SE.
Meta Tag: An optional HTML tag that is used to specify information about a web document. Some
search engines use "spiders" to index web pages. These spiders read the information contained within
a page's META tag. So in theory, an HTML or web page author has the ability to control how their site
is indexed by search engines and how and when it will "come up" on a user's search. The META tag
can also be used to specify an HTTP or URL address for the page to "jump" to after a certain amount
of time. This is known as Client-Pull. What this means, is a web page author can control the amount of
time a web page is up on the screen as well as where the browser will go next.
Metrics: Specific areas of measurement. A metric must be quantitative and must support
benchmarking, and it must be based on broad, statistically valid data. Therefore, it must exist in a
format for which published data exists within the enterprise or industry. See Performance Measures
Micro-Land Bridge: An intermodal movement in which the shipment is moved from a foreign country
to the U.S. by water and then moved across the U.S. by railroad to an interior, nonport city, or vice
versa for exports from a nonport city.
Mileage Allowance: An allowance based upon distance and given by railroads to shippers using
private rail cars.
Mileage Rate: A rate based upon the number of miles the commodity is shipped.
Milk Run: A regular route for pickup of mixed loads from several suppliers. For example, instead of
each of five suppliers sending a truckload per week to meet the weekly needs of the customer, one
truck visits each of the suppliers on a daily basis before delivering to the customer’s plant. Five
truckloads per week are still shipped, but each truckload contains the daily requirement from each
supplier. Also see: Consolidation
Min – Max System: A type of order point replenishment system where the “min” (minimum) is the
order point, and the “max” (maximum) is the “order up to” inventory level. The order quantity is
variable and is the result of the max minus the available and on-order inventory. An order is
recommended when the sum of the available and on-order inventory is at or below the min.
Mini-Land Bridge: An intermodal movement in which the shipment is moved from a foreign country
to the U.S. by water and then moved across the U.S. by railroad to a destination that is a port city, or
vice versa for exports from a U.S. port city.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 96 of 167
Minimum Weight: The shipment weight specified by the carrier’s tariff as the minimum weight
required to use the TL or CL rate; the rate discount volume.
Misguided Capacity Plans: Plans or forecasts for capacity utilization, which are based on inaccurate
assumptions or input data.
Mixed loads: The movement of both regulated and exempt commodities in the same vehicle at the
same time.
Modal Split: The relative use made of the modes of transportation; the statistics used include tonmiles,
passenger-miles, and revenue.
Mode: See Transportation Mode
MOTE (as in reMOTE): A wireless receiver/transmitter that is typically combined with a sensor of
some type to create a remote sensor. Motes are being used in ocean containers to look for evidence of
tampering. They have huge application in food, pharma, and other “cold chain” industries to closely
monitor temperature, humidity and other factor.
Motor Carrier: An enterprise that offers service via land motor carriage.
Move Ticket: A document used to move inventory within a facility. Warehouse management systems
use move tickets to direct and track material movements. In a paperless environment the electronic
version of a move ticket is often called a task or a trip.
MPS: See Master Production Schedule
MRO: See Maintenance, Repair, and Operating Supplies
MRP: See Material Requirements Planning
MRP-II: See Manufacturing Resource Planning
MSDS: See Material Safety Data Sheet
MTO: See Make-to-Order
MTS: See Make-to-Stock
MTSA: See Maritime Transportation Security Act
Multi-Currency: The ability to process orders using a variety of currencies for pricing and billing.
Multinational Company: A company that both produces and markets products in different countries.
Multiple-Car Rate: A railroad rate that is lower for shipping more than one carload rather than just one
carload at a time.
Multi-Skilled: Pertaining to individuals who are certified to perform a variety of tasks.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 97 of 167
N
NAFTA: See North American Free Trade Agreement
National Carrier: A for-hire certificated air carrier that has annual operating revenues of $75 million
to $1 billion; the carrier usually operates between major population centers and areas of lesser
population.
National Industrial Traffic League: An association representing the interests of shippers and
receivers in matters of transportation policy and regulation.
Nationalization: Public ownership, financing, and operation of a business entity.
National Motor Bus Operators Organization: An industry association representing common and
charter bus firms; now known as the American Bus Association.
National Motor Freight Classification (NMFC): A tariff, which contains descriptions and
classifications of commodities and rules for domestic movement by motor carriers in the U.S.
National Railroad Corporation: Also known as Amtrak, the corporation established by the Rail
Passenger Service Act of 1970 to operate most of the United States’ rail passenger service.
National Stock Number (NSN): The individual identification number assigned to an item to permit
inventory management in the federal (U.S.) supply system.
Net Asset Turns: The number of times you replenish your net assets in your annual sales cycle. A
measure of how quickly assets are used to generate sales.
Calculation:
Total Product Revenue / Total Net Assets
Net Assets: Total Net assets are calculated as Total Assets - Total Liabilities; where: The total assets
are made up of fixed assets (plant, machinery and equipment) and current assets which is the total of
stock, debtors and cash (also includes A/R, inventory, prepaid assets, deferred assets, intangibles and
goodwill). The total liabilities are made up in much the same way of long-term liabilities and current
liabilities (includes A/P, accrued expenses, deferred liabilities).
Net Change MRP: An approach in which the material requirements plan is continually retained in the
computer. Whenever a change is needed in requirements, open order inventory status, or bill of
material, a partial explosion and netting is made for only those parts affected by the change.
Antonym: Regeneration MRP.
Net Requirements: In MRP, the net requirements for a part or an assembly are derived as a result of
applying gross requirements and allocations against inventory on hand, scheduled receipts, and safety
stock. Net requirements, lot-sized and offset for lead time, become planned orders.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 98 of 167
Net Weight: The weight of the merchandise, unpacked, exclusive of any containers.
New Product Introduction (NPI): The process used to develop products that are new to the sales
portfolio of a company.
NII: See Non Intrusive Inspection Technology
NES: See Not Otherwise Specified/Not Elsewhere Specified
NMFC: See National Motor Freight Classification
Node: A fixed point in a firm’s logistics system where goods come to rest; includes plants,
warehouses, supply sources, and markets.
No Location (No Loc): A received item for which the warehouse has no previously established
storage slot.
Noncertified Carrier: A for-hire air carrier that is exempt from economic regulation.
Nonconformity: Failure to fulfill a specified requirement. See: blemish, defect, imperfection
Non-Conveyable: Materials which cannot be moved on a conveyor belt.
Non-Durable goods: Goods whose serviceability is generally limited to a period of less than three
years (such as perishable goods and semidurable goods).
Non-Intrusive Inspection technology (NII): Originally developed to address the threat of
smugglers using increasingly sophisticated techniques to conceal narcotics deep in commercial cargo
and conveyances, NII systems, in many cases, give Customs inspectors the capability to perform
thorough examinations of cargo without having to resort to the costly, time consuming process of
unloading cargo for manual searches, or intrusive examinations of conveyances by methods such as
drilling and dismantling.
Non-Vessel-Owning Common Carrier (NVOCC): A firm that offers the same services as an ocean
carrier, but which does not own or operate a vessel. NVOCCs usually act as consolidators, accepting
small shipments (LCL) and consolidating them into full container loads. They also consolidate and
disperse international containers that originate at or are bound for inland ports. They then act as a
shipper, tendering the containers to ocean common carriers. They are required to file tariffs with the
Federal Maritime Commission and are subject to the same laws and statutes that apply to primary
common carriers.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): A free trade agreement, implemented January
1, 1994, between Canada, the United States and Mexico. It includes measures for the elimination of
tariffs and non-tariff barriers to trade, as well as many more specific provisions concerning the
conduct of trade and investment that reduce the scope for government intervention in managing
trade.
NOS: See Not Otherwise Specified/Not Elsewhere Specified
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 99 of 167
Not Otherwise Specified/Not Elsewhere Specified (NOS/NES): This term often appears in ocean
or airfreight tariffs respectively. If no rate for the specific commodity shipped appears in the tariff,
then a general class rate (for example: printed matter NES) will apply. Such rates usually are higher
than rates for specific commodities.
NPI: See New Product Introduction
NSN: See National Stock Number
NVOCC: See Non-vessel-owning common carrier
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 100 of 167
O
Object Linking and Embedding (OLE): An object system created by Microsoft. OLE lets an author
invoke different editor components to create a compound document.
Obsolete Inventory: Inventory for which there is no forecast demand expected. A condition of being
out of date. A loss of value occasioned by new developments that place the older property at a
competitive disadvantage.
Ocean Bill of Lading: The bill of lading issued by the ocean carrier to its customer.
OEE: See Overall Equipment Effectiveness
OEM: See Original Equipment Manufacturer
Offer: See Tender
Offline: A computer term which describes work done outside of the computer system or outside of a
main process within the corporate system. In general usage this term describes any situation where
equipment is not available for use, or individuals cannot be contacted.
Offshore: Utilizing an outsourcing service provider (manufacturer or business process) located in a
country other than where the purchasing enterprise is located.
Offshoring: The practice of moving domestic operations such as manufacturing to another country.
OLE: See Object Linking and Embedding
On-Demand: Pertaining to work performed when demand is present. Typically used to describe
products which are manufactured or assembled only when a customer order is placed.
On-Hand Balance: The quantity shown in the inventory records as being physically in stock.
On order: The quantity of goods that has yet to arrive at a location or retail store. This includes all
open purchase orders including, but not limited to, orders in transit, orders being picked, and orders
being processed through customer service.
On-Line Receiving: A system in which computer terminals are available at each receiving bay and
operators enter items into the system as they are unloaded.
On Order: The amount of goods that has yet to arrive at a location or retail store. This includes all
open purchase orders including, but not limited to, orders in transit, orders being picked, and orders
being processed through customer service.
On Time In Full (OTIF): Sales order delivery performance measure which can be expressed as a
target, say, of achieving 98% of orders delivered in full, no part shipments, on the requested date.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 101 of 167
One Piece Flow: Moving parts through a process in batches of one
One-Way Networks: The advantages generally live with either the seller or buyer, but not both. B2C
websites are one-way networks.
Online: A computer term which describes activities performed using computer systems.
Open-to-Buy: A control technique used in aggregate inventory management in which authorizations
to purchase are made without being committed to specific suppliers. These authorizations are often
reviewed by management using such measures as commodity in dollars and by time period.
Open-to-Receive: Authorization to receive goods, such as a blanket release, firm purchase order
item, or supplier schedule. Open-to-receive represents near-term impact on inventory, and is often
monitored as a control technique in aggregate inventory management. The total of open-to-receive,
other longer term purchase commitments and open-to-buy represents

برچسب ها: SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS TERMS and GLOSSARY Updated October 2006 Definitions compiled by: Kate Vitasek Supply Chain Visions www.scvisions.com Bellevue، Washington Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions، nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted. Page 91 of 167 Manufacturing Calendar: A calendar used in inventory and production planning functions that consecutively numbers only the working days so that the component and work order scheduling may be done based on the actual number of workdays available. Synonyms: M-Day Calendar، Planning Calendar، Production Calendar، Shop Calendar. Manufacturing Capital Asset Value: The asset value of the "Manufacturing fixed assets" after allowance for depreciation. Examples of equipment are SMT placement machines، conveyors،  

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SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 78 of 167
Internal Labor and Overhead: The portion of COGS that is typically reported as labor and
overhead, less any costs already classified as "outsourced."
Internal Water Carriers: Water carriers that operate over internal, navigable rivers such as the
Mississippi, Ohio, and Missouri.
International Air Transport Association (IATA): An international air carrier rate bureau for
passenger and freight movements.
International Civil Aeronautics Organization (ICAO): An international agency that is responsible
for air safety and for standardizing air traffic control, airport design, and safety features worldwide.
International Maritime Bureau (IMB): A special division of the International Chamber of
Commerce.
International Maritime Organization (IMO): A United Nations-affiliated organization representing
all maritime countries in matters affecting maritime transportation, including the movement of
dangerous goods. The organization also is involved in deliberations on marine environmental pollution.
International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS): Adopted by the IMO and based on
the U.S. MTSA, came into force on July 1, 2004. It is a comprehensive, mandatory security regime for
international shipping and port facility operations agreed to by the members of the IMO. Ships must
be certified by their flag states to ensure that mandated security measures have been implemented;
port facilities must undergo security vulnerability assessments that form the basis of security plans
approved by their government authorities.
International Standards Organization (ISO): An organization within the United Nations to which
all national and other standard setting bodies (should) defer. Develops and monitors international
standards, including OSI, EDIFACT, and X.400
Internet: A computer term which refers to an interconnected group of computer networks from all
parts of the world, i.e. a network of networks. Accessed via a modem and an on-line service provider,
it contains many information resources and acts as a giant electronic message routing system.
Interstate Commerce: The transportation of persons or property between states; in the course of
the movement, the shipment cresses a state boundary line.
Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC): An independent regulatory agency that implements
federal economic regulations controlling railroads, motor carriers, pipelines, domestic water carriers,
domestic surface freight forwarders, and brokers.
Interstate System: The National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, 42,000 miles of fourlane,
limited-access roads connecting major population centers.
Intra-Manufacturing Re-plan Cycle: Average elapsed time, in calendar days, between the time a
regenerated forecast is accepted by the end-product manufacturing/assembly location, and the time
that the revised plan is reflected in the Master Production Schedule of all the affected internal subassembly/
component producing plant(s). (An element of Total Supply Chain Response Time)
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 79 of 167
Intrastate Commerce: The transportation of persons or property between points within a state. A
shipment between two points within a state may be interstate if the shipment had a prior or
subsequent move outside of the state and the intent of the shipper was an interstate shipment at the
time of shipment.
In-transit Inventory: Material moving between two or more locations, usually separated
geographically; for example, finished goods being shipped from a plant to a distribution center. Intransit
inventory is an easily overlooked component of total supply chain availability.
Intrinsic Forecast Method: In forecasting, a forecast based on internal factors, such as an average
of past sales.
Inventory: Raw materials, work in process, finished goods and supplies required for creation of a
company's goods and services; The number of units and/or value of the stock of goods held by a
company.
Inventory Accuracy: When the on-hand quantity is equivalent to the perpetual balance (plus or
minus the designated count tolerances).Often referred to as a percentage showing the variance
between book inventory and actual count. This is a major performance metric for any organization
which manages large inventories. Typical minimum and best practice averages would be 95% and
99%.
Inventory Balance Location Accuracy: When the on-hand quantity in the specified locations is
equivalent to the perpetual balance (plus or minus the designated count tolerances).
Inventory Carrying Cost: One of the elements comprising a company's total supply-chain
management costs. These costs consist of the following:
1. Opportunity Cost: The opportunity cost of holding inventory. This should be based on your
company's own cost of capital standards using the following formula. Calculation: Cost of
Capital x Average Net Value of Inventory
2. Shrinkage: The costs associated with breakage, pilferage, and deterioration of inventories.
Usually pertains to the loss of material through handling damage, theft, or neglect.
3. Insurance and Taxes: The cost of insuring inventories and taxes associated with the holding of
inventory.
4. Total Obsolescence for Raw Material, WIP, and Finished Goods Inventory: Inventory reserves
taken due to obsolescence and scrap and includes products exceeding the shelf life, i.e. spoils
and is no good for use in its original purpose (do not include reserves taken for Field Service
Parts).
5. Channel Obsolescence: Aging allowances paid to channel partners, provisions for buy-back
agreements, etc. Includes all material that goes obsolete while in a distribution channel.
Usually, a distributor will demand a refund on material that goes bad (shelf life) or is no longer
needed because of changing needs.
6. Field Service Parts Obsolescence: Reserves taken due to obsolescence and scrap. Field Service
Parts are those inventory kept at locations outside the four walls of the manufacturing plant
i.e., distribution center or warehouse.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 80 of 167
Inventory Days of Supply (for RM, WIP, PFG, and FFG): Total gross value of inventory for the
category (raw materials, work in process, partially finished goods, or fully-finished goods) at standard
cost before reserves for excess and obsolescence. It includes only inventory that is on the books and
currently owned by the business entity. Future liabilities such as consignments from suppliers are not
included.
Calculation:
[5 Point Annual Average Gross Inventory] / [Calendar Year Value of Transfers / 365]
Inventory Deployment: A technique for strategically positioning inventory to meet customer service
levels while minimizing inventory and storage levels. Excess inventory is replaced with information
derived through monitoring supply, demand and inventory at rest as well as in motion.
Inventory Management: The process of ensuring the availability of products through inventory
administration.
Inventory Planning Systems: The systems that help in strategically balancing the inventory policy
and customer service levels throughout the supply chain. These systems calculate time-phased order
quantities and safety stock, using selected inventory strategies. Some inventory planning systems
conduct what-if analysis and that compares the current inventory policy with simulated inventory
scenarios and improves the inventory ROI.
Inventory Turns: The cost of goods sold divided by the average level of inventory on hand. This ratio
measures how many times a company's inventory has been sold during a period of time.
Operationally, inventory turns are measured as total throughput divided by average level of inventory
for a given period; How many times a year the average inventory for a firm changes over, or is sold.
Inventory Turnover: See Inventory Turns
Inventory Velocity: The speed with which inventory moves through a defined cycle (i.e., from
receiving to shipping).
Invoice: A detailed statement showing goods sold and amounts for each. The invoice is prepared by
the seller and acts as the document that the buyer will use to make payment.
IP: See Intellectual Property
Irregular Route Carrier: A motor carrier that is permitted to provide service utilizing any route.
IS: See Information Systems
ISDN: See Integrated services digital network
ISO: See International Standards Organization
ISO 9000: A series of quality assurance standards compiled by the Geneva, Switzerland-based
International Standardization Organization. In the United States, ISO is represented by the American
National Standards Institute based in Washington, D.C.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 81 of 167
ISO 14000 Series Standards: A series of generic environmental management standards under
development by the International Organization of Standardization, which provide structure and
systems for managing environmental compliance with legislative and regulatory requirements and
affect every aspect of a company’s environmental operations.
ISPS: See International Ship and Port Facility Security Code
IT: Information Technology.
ITL: International Trade Logistics.
ITE: See Independent Trading Exchange
ITU: See Intermodal Transport Unit
Item: Any unique manufactured or purchased part, material, intermediate, subassembly, or product.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 82 of 167
J
Java: A computer term for a general-purpose programming language created by Sun Microsystems.
Java can be used to create Java applets. A Java program is downloaded from the web server and
interpreted by a program running on the computer running the Web browser.
Java Applet: A computer term for a short program written in Java that is attached to a web page and
executed by the computer on which the Web browser is installed.
Java Script: A computer term for a cross-platform, World Wide Web scripting language developed by
Netscape Communications. JavaScript code is inserted directly into an HTML page.
Jidoka: The concept of adding an element of human judgment to automated equipment. In doing
this, the equipment becomes capable of discriminating against unacceptable quality, and the
automated process becomes more reliable. This concept, also known as autonomation, was pioneered
by Sakichi Toyoda at the turn of the twentieth century when he invented automatic looms that
stopped instantly when any thread broke. This permitted one operator to oversee many machines with
no risk of producing large amounts of defective cloth. The term has since been extended beyond its
original meaning to include any means of stopping production to prevent scrap (for example the andon
cord which allows assembly-plant workers to stop the line), even where this capability is not built-in to
the production machine itself.
JIT: See Just-In-Time
JIT II: See Just-In-Time II
JIT/QC: Just-In-Time/Quality Control.
Joint Cost: A type of common cost where products are produced in fixed proportions, and the cost
incurred to produce on product necessarily entails the production of another; the backhaul is an
example.
Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG): A computer term which is an abbreviation for the Joint
Photographic Expert Group. A graphical file format used to display high-resolution color images on the
World Wide Web. JPEG images apply a user-specified compression scheme that can significantly
reduce the large file size usually associated with photo-realistic color images. A higher level of
compression results in lower image quality, whereas a lower level of compression results in higher
image quality.
Joint Rate: A rate over a route that involves two or more carriers to transport the shipment.
Joint Supplier Agreement (JSA): Indicative of Stage 3 Sourcing Practices, the JSA includes terms &
conditions, objectives, process flows, performance targets, flexibility, balancing and incentives.
JPEG: See Joint Photographic Expert Group
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 83 of 167
JSA: See Joint Supplier Agreement
Just-in-Time (JIT): An inventory control system that controls material flow into assembly and
manufacturing plants by coordinating demand and supply to the point where desired materials arrive
just in time for use. An inventory reduction strategy that feeds production lines with products
delivered "just in time”. Developed by the auto industry, it refers to shipping goods in smaller, more
frequent lots.
Just-in-Time II (JIT II): Vendor-managed operations taking place within a customer's facility. JIT
II was popularized by the Bose Corporation. The supplier reps, called "inplants," place orders to their
own companies, relieving the customer's buyers from this task. Many also become involved at a
deeper level, such as participating in new product development projects, manufacturing planning
(concurrent planning).
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 84 of 167
K
Kanban: Japanese word for "visible record", loosely translated means card, billboard or sign.
Popularized by Toyota Corporation, it uses standard containers or lot sizes to deliver needed parts to
assembly line "just in time" for use.
Kaizen: The Japanese term for improvement; continuing improvement involving everyone—managers
and workers. In manufacturing, kaizen relates to finding and eliminating waste in machinery, labor,
or production methods. Also see: Continuous Process Improvement
Kaizen Blitz: A rapid improvement of a limited process area, for example, a production cell. Part of
the improvement team consists of workers in that area. The objectives are to use innovative thinking
to eliminate non-value-added work and to immediately implement the changes within a week or less.
Ownership of the improvement by the area work team and the development of the team’s problemsolving
skills are additional benefits.
KD: See Knock-Down
Keiretsu: A form of cooperative relationship among companies in Japan where the companies largely
remain legally and economically independent, even though they work closely in various ways such as
sole sourcing and financial backing. A member of a keiretsu generally owns a limited amount of stock
in other member companies. A keiretsu generally forms around a bank and a trading company but
“distribution” (supply chain) keiretsus exist linking companies from raw material suppliers to retailers.
Key Custodians: The persons, assigned by the security administrators of trading partners, that send
or receive a component of either the master key or exchange key used to encrypt data encryption
keys. This control technique involves dual control, with split knowledge that requires two key
custodians.
Key Performance Indicator (KPI): A measure which is of strategic importance to a company or
department. For example, a supply chain flexibility metric is Supplier On-time Delivery Performance
which indicates the percentage of orders that are fulfilled on or before the original requested date.
Also see: Scorecard
Kitting: Light assembly of components or parts into defined units. Kitting reduces the need to
maintain an inventory of pre-built completed products, but increases the time and labor consumed at
shipment. Also see: Postponement
Knock-Down (KD): A flat, unformed cardboard box or tray. Knock-downs, also known as KDs, are
constructed and glued in the recoup or packaging areas and used for repacked product. Many KDs are
provided by the customer for their recouped products.
KPI: See Key Performance Indicator
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 85 of 167
L
Lading: The cargo carried in a transportation vehicle.
Laid-Down Cost: The sum of the product and transportation costs. The laid-down cost is useful in
comparing the total cost of a product shipped from different supply sources to a customer’s point of
use.
LAN: See Local Area Network
Land Bridge: The movement of containers by ship-rail-sip on Japan-to-Europe moves; ships move
containers to the U.S. Pacific Coast, rails move containers to an East Coast port, and ships deliver
containers to Europe.
Land Grants: Grants of land given to railroads during their developmental stage to build tracks.
Landed Cost: Cost of product plus relevant logistics costs such as transportation, warehousing,
handling, etc. Also called Total Landed Cost or Net Landed Costs
Lash Barges: Covered barges that are loaded on board oceangoing ships for movement to foreign
destinations.
Last In, First Out (LIFO): Accounting method of valuing inventory that assumes latest goods
purchased are first goods used during accounting period.
LCL: See Less-Than-Carload or Less-Than-Container load
LDI: See Logistics data interchange
Lead Logistics Partner (LLP): An organization that organizes other 3rd party logistics partners for
outsourcing of logistics functions. An LLP serves as the client's primary supply chain management
provider, defining processes and managing the provision and integration of logistics services through
its own organization and those of its subcontractors. Also see: Fourth Party Logistics
Lead Time: The total time that elapses between an order's placement and its receipt. It includes the
time required for order transmittal, order processing, order preparation, and transit.
Lead Time from Complete Manufacture to Customer Receipt: Includes time from when an order
is ready for shipment to customer receipt of order. Time from complete manufacture to customer
receipt including the following elements: pick/pack time, prepare for shipment, total transit time (all
components to consolidation point), consolidation, queue time, and additional transit time to customer
receipt.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 86 of 167
Lead Time from Order Receipt to Complete Manufacture: Includes times from order receipt to
order entry complete, from order entry complete to start to build, and from start to build to ready for
shipment. Time from order receipt to order entry complete includes the following elements: order
revalidation, configuration check, credit check, and scheduling. Time from order entry complete to
start to build includes the following elements: customer wait time and engineering and design time.
Time from start to build to ready for shipment includes the following elements: release to
manufacturing or distribution, order configuration verification, production scheduling, and build or
configure time.
Least Total Cost: A dynamic lot-sizing technique that calculates the order quantity by comparing the
setup (or ordering) costs and the carrying cost for various lot sizes and selects the lot size where
these costs are most nearly equal. Also see: Discrete Order Quantity, Dynamic Lot Sizing
Least Unit Cost: A dynamic lot-sizing technique that adds ordering cost and inventory carrying cost
for each trial lot size and divides by the number of units in the lot size, picking the lot size with the
lowest unit cost. Also see: Discrete Order Quantity, Dynamic Lot Sizing
Leg: A portion of a complete trip which has an origin, destination, and carrier and is composed of all
consecutive segments of a route booked through the same carrier. Also called Bookable Leg
Less-Than-Carload (LCL): Shipment that is less than a complete rail car load (lot shipment).
Less-Than-Truckload (LTL) Carriers: Trucking companies that consolidate and transport smaller
(less than truckload) shipments of freight by utilizing a network of terminals and relay points.
Lessee: A person or firm to whom a lease is granted.
Lessor: A person or firm that grants a lease.
Letter of credit (LOC): An international business document that assures the seller that payment will
be made by the bank issuing the letter of credit upon fulfillment of the sales agreement.
Leverage: Taking something small and exploding it. Can be financial or technological.
License Plate: A pallet tag; refers to a uniquely numbered bar code sticker placed on a pallet of
product. Typically contains information about product on the pallet.
Life Cycle Cost: In cost accounting, a product’s life cycle is the period that starts with the initial
product conceptualization and ends with the withdrawal of the product from the marketplace and final
disposition. A product life cycle is characterized by certain defined stages, including research,
development, introduction, maturity, decline, and abandonment. Life cycle cost is the accumulated
costs incurred by a product during these stages.
Lighter: A flat-bottomed boat designed for cross-harbor or inland waterway freight transfer. While
the terms barge and lighter are used interchangeably, a barge usually refers to a vessel used for a
long haul, while a lighter is used for a short haul.
LIFO: See Last In, First Out
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 87 of 167
Lift truck: Vehicles used to lift, move, stack, rack, or otherwise manipulate loads. Material handling
people use a lot of terms to describe lift trucks, some terms describe specific types of vehicles, others
are slang terms or trade names that people often mistakenly use to describe trucks. Terms include
industrial truck, forklift, reach truck, motorized pallet trucks, turret trucks, counterbalanced forklift,
walkie, rider, walkie rider, walkie stacker, straddle lift, side loader, order pickers, high lift, cherry
picker, Jeep, Towmotor, Yale, Crown, Hyster, Raymond, Clark, Drexel.
Line: 1) A specific physical space for the manufacture of a product that in a flow shop layout is
represented by a straight line. In actuality, this may be a series of pieces of equipment connected by
piping or conveyor systems. 2) A type of manufacturing process used to produce a narrow range of
standard items with identical or highly similar designs. Production volumes are high, production and
material handling equipment is specialized, and all products typically pass through the same sequence
of operations. Also see: Assembly Line
Line Functions: The decision-making areas associated with daily operations. Logistics line functions
include traffic management, inventory control, order processing, warehousing, and packaging.
Line-Haul Shipment: A shipment that moves between cities and distances over 100 to 150 miles.
Line Scrap: Value of raw materials and work-in-process inventory scrapped as a result of improper
processing or assembly, as a percentage of total value of production at standard cost.
Liner Service: International water carriers that ply fixed routes on published schedules.
Link: The transportation method used to connect the nodes (plants, warehouses) in a logistics
system.
Linked Distributed Systems: Independent computer systems, owned by independent organizations,
linked in a manner to allow direct updates to be made to one system by another. For example, a
customer's computer system is linked to a supplier's system, and the customer can create orders or
releases directly in the supplier's system.
Little Inch: A federally built pipeline constructed during World War II that connected Corpus Christi
and Houston, Texas.
Live: A situation in which the equipment operator stays with the trailer or boxcar while it is being
loaded or unloaded.
LLP: See Lead Logistics Partner
Load Factor: A measure of operating efficiency used by air carriers to determine the percentage of a
plane’s capacity that is utilized, or the number of passengers divided by the total number of seats.
Load Tender (Pick-Up Request): An offer of cargo for transport by a shipper. Load tender
terminology is primarily used in the motor industry.
Load Tendering: The practice of providing a carrier with detailed information and negotiated pricing
(the tender) prior to scheduling pickup. This practice can help assure contract compliance and facilitate
automated payments (self billing).
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 88 of 167
Loading allowance: A reduced rate offered to shippers and/or consignees who load and/or unload
LTL or AQ shipments.
Loading Port: The port where the cargo is loaded onto the exporting vessel. This port must be
reported on the Shipper's Export Declaration, Schedule D and is used by U.S. companies to determine
which tariff is used to freight rate the cargo for carriers with more than one tariff.
LOC: See Letter of credit
Local Area Network (LAN): A data communications network spanning a limited geographical area,
usually a few miles at most, providing communications between computers and peripheral devices.
Local Rate: A rate published between two points served by one carrier.
Local Service Carriers: An air carrier classification of carriers that operate between areas of lesser
and major population centers. These carriers feed passengers into the major cities to major hubs.
Location Tag: A bar coded sign that hangs above or on a warehouse location. The location number
can be read from the tag or scanned with an RF gun.
Locational Determinant: The factors that determine the location of a facility. For industrial facilities,
the determinants include logistics.
Locator System: Locator systems are inventory-tracking systems that allow you to assign specific
physical locations to your inventory to facilitate greater tracking and the ability to store product
randomly. Location functionality in software can range from a simple text field attached to an item
that notes a single location, to systems that allow multiple locations per item and track inventory
quantities by location. Warehouse management systems (WMS) take locator systems to the next level
by adding functionality to direct the movement between locations.
Logbook: A daily record of the hours an interstate driver spends driving, off, duty, sleeping in the
berth, or on duty but not driving.
Logistics: The process of planning, implementing, and controlling procedures for the efficient and
effective transportation and storage of goods including services, and related information from the
point of origin to the point of consumption for the purpose of conforming to customer requirements.
This definition includes inbound, outbound, internal, and external movements.
Logistics Channel: The network of supply chain participants engaged in storage, handling, transfer,
transportation, and communications functions that contribute to the efficient flow of goods.
Logistics Data Interchange (LDI): A computerized system to electronically transmit logistics
information.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 89 of 167
Logistics Management: As defined by the Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals
(CSCMP): “Logistics management is that part of supply chain management that plans, implements,
and controls the efficient, effective forward and reverse flow and storage of goods, services, and
related information between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet
customers’ requirements. Logistics management activities typically include inbound and outbound
transportation management, fleet management, warehousing, materials handling, order fulfillment,
logistics network design, inventory management, supply/demand planning, and management of third
party logistics services providers. To varying degrees, the logistics function also includes sourcing and
procurement, production planning and scheduling, packaging and assembly, and customer service. It
is involved in all levels of planning and execution—strategic, operational, and tactical. Logistics
management is an integrating function which coordinates and optimizes all logistics activities, as well
as integrates logistics activities with other functions, including marketing, sales, manufacturing,
finance, and information technology.”
Long Ton: Equals 2,240 pounds.
Lot Control: A set of procedures (e.g., assigning unique batch numbers and tracking each batch) used
to maintain lot integrity from raw materials, from the supplier through manufacturing to consumers.
Lot-for-Lot: A lot-sizing technique that generates planned orders in quantities equal to the net
requirements in each period. Also see: Discrete Order Quantity
Lot Number: See Batch Number
Lot Size: The quantity of goods purchased or produced in anticipation of use or sale in the future.
Lot Sized System: See Fixed Reorder Quantity Inventory Model
LTL: See Less-than-truckload Carriers
Lumping: A term applied to a person who assists a motor carrier owner-operator in the loading and
unloading of property: quite commonly used in the food industry.
Lumpy Demand: See Discontinuous Demand
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 90 of 167
M
M2M: See Machine-to-Machine interface
Machine Downtimes: Time during which a machine cannot be utilized. Machine downtimes may
occur during breakdowns, maintenance, changeovers, etc.
Machine-to-Machine interface (M2M): A term describing the process whereby machines are
remotely monitored for status and problems reported and resolved automatically or maintenance
scheduled by the monitoring systems.
Macro Environment: The environment external to a business including technological, economic,
natural, and regulatory forces that marketing efforts cannot control.
Mainframe: A term sometimes generically used to refer to an organization’s central computer
system. Specifically the largest class of computer systems manufactured.
Maintenance, Repair, and Operating supplies (MRO): Items used in support of general
operations and maintenance such as maintenance supplies, spare parts, and consumables used in the
manufacturing process and supporting operations.
Major Carrier: A for-hire certificated air carrier that has annual operating revenues of $1 billion or
more: the carrier usually operates between major population centers.
Make-or-Buy Decision: The act of deciding whether to produce an item internally or buy it from an
outside supplier. Factors to consider in the decision include costs, capacity availability, proprietary
and/or specialized knowledge, quality considerations, skill requirements, volume, and timing.
Make-to-Order (Manufacture-to-order) (MTO): A manufacturing process strategy where the
trigger to begin manufacture of a product is an actual customer order or release, rather than a market
forecast. For Make-to-Order products, more than 20% of the value-added takes place after the
receipt of the order or release, and all necessary design and process documentation is available at
time of order receipt.
Make-to-Stock (Manufacture-to-stock) (MTS): A manufacturing process strategy where finished
product is continually held in plant or warehouse inventory to fulfill expected incoming orders or
releases based on a forecast.
Manifest: A document which describes individual orders contained within a shipment.
Manufacturer’s Representative: One who sells goods for several firms but does not take title to
them.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY

برچسب ها: SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS TERMS and GLOSSARY Updated October 2006 Definitions compiled by: Kate Vitasek Supply Chain Visions www.scvisions.com Bellevue، Washington Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions، nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted. Page 78 of 167 Internal Labor and Overhead: The portion of COGS that is typically reported as labor and overhead، less any costs already classified as "outsourced." Internal Water Carriers: Water carriers that operate over internal، navigable rivers such as the Mississippi، Ohio، and Missouri. International Air Transport Association (IATA): An international air carrier rate bureau for passenger and freight movements. International Civil Aeronautics Organization (ICAO): An international agency that is responsible for air safety and for standardizing air traffic control،  

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لغات و اصطلاحات زنجیره تامین و تدارکات




TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 70 of 167
Global Standards Management Process (GSMP): The Global Standards Management Process
(GSMP) is the Global Process established in January 2002 by EAN International and the Uniform Code
Council, Inc. (UCC) for the development and maintenance of Global Standards and Global
Implementation Guidelines that are part of the EAN.UCC system.
Global Strategy: A strategy that focuses on improving worldwide performance through the sales and
marketing of common goods and services with minimum product variation by country. Its competitive
advantage grows through selecting the best locations for operations in other countries.
Global Trade Item Number (GTIN): A unique number that comprises up to 14 digits and is used to
identify an item (product or service) upon which there is a need to retrieve pre-defined information
that may be priced, ordered or invoiced at any point in the supply chain. The definition covers raw
materials through end user products and includes services, all of which have pre-defined
characteristics. GTIN is the globally-unique EAN.UCC System identification number, or key, used for
trade items (products and services). It’s used for uniquely identifying trade items (products and
services) sold, delivered, warehoused, and billed throughout the retail and commercial distribution
channels. Unlike a UPC number, which only provides information specific to a group of products, the
GTIN gives each product its own specific identifying number, giving greater accuracy in tracking. See
EPC
Global Positioning System (GPS): A system which uses satellites to precisely locate an object on
earth. Used by trucking companies to locate over-the-road equipment.
Globalization: The process of making something worldwide in scope or application.
GO: See General Order
Going-Concern Value: The value that a firm has as an entity, as opposed to the sum of the values of
each of its parts taken separately; particularly important in determining what constitutes a reasonable
railroad rate.
Gondola: A rail car with a flat platform and sides three to five feet high; used for top loading of items
that are long and heavy.
Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) or 21 CFR, parts 808, 812, and 820: Requirements
governing the quality procedures of medical device manufacturers.
Goods: A term associated with more than one definition: 1) Common term indicating movable
property, merchandise, or wares. 2) All materials which are used to satisfy demands. 3) Whole or part
of the cargo received from the shipper, including any equipment supplied by the shipper.
Goods Received Note (GRN): Documentation raised by the recipient of materials or products.
GMP: See Good manufacturing practices
GNP: See Gross National Product
GPS: See Global Positioning System
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 71 of 167
Grandfather Clause: A provision that enabled motor carriers engaged in lawful trucking operations
before the passage of the Motor Carrier Act of 1935 to secure common carrier authority without
proving public convenience and necessity; a similar provision exists for other modes.
Granger Laws: State laws passed before 1870 in Midwestern states to control rail transportation.
Graphics Interchange Format (GIF): A graphical file format commonly used to display indexedcolor
images on the World Wide Web. GIF is a compressed format, designed to minimize file transfer
time over standard phone lines.
GreenLane: A concept that would give C-TPAT members that demonstrate the highest standard of
secure practices additional benefits for exceeding the minimum requirements of the program.
GreenLane benefits would include expedited movement of cargo, especially during an incident of
national significance.
Grid technique: A quantitative technique to determine the least-cost center, given raw materials
sources and markets, for locating a plant or warehouse.
GRN: See Goods Received Note
GPS: See Global Positioning System
Groupthink: A situation in which critical information is withheld from the team because individual
members censor or restrain themselves, either because they believe their concerns are not worth
discussing or because they are afraid of confrontation.
Gross Inventory: Value of inventory at standard cost before any reserves for excess and obsolete
items are taken.
Gross Margin: The difference between total revenue and the cost of goods sold. Syn: gross profit
margin
Gross National Product (GNP): A measure of a nation’s output; the total value of all final goods
and services produced during a period of time.
Gross Weight: The total weight of the vehicle and the payload of freight or passengers.
GS1: The new name of EAN International. The GS1 US is the new name of the Uniform Code Council,
Inc® (UCC®) the GS1 Member Organization for the U.S. The association that administrates UCS,
WINS, and VICS and provides UCS identification codes and UPCs. Also, a model set of legal rules
governing commercial transmissions, such as sales, contracts, bank deposits and collections,
commercial paper, and letters of credit. Individual states give legal power to the GS1 by adopting its
articles of law.
GSMP: See Global Standards Management Process
GTIN: See Global Trade Item Number
Guaranteed Loans: Loans made to railroads that are cosigned and guaranteed by the federal
government.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 72 of 167
H
Handling Costs: The cost involved in moving, transferring, preparing, and otherwise handling
inventory.
Hard copy: Computer output printed on paper.
Harmonized Code: An international classification system that assigns identification numbers to
specific products. The coding system ensures that all parties in international trade use a consistent
classification for the purposes of documentation, statistical control, and duty assessment.
Haulage: The inland transport service which is offered by the carrier under the terms and conditions
of the tariff and of the relative transport document.
Hawaiian carrier: A for-hire air carrier that operates within the state of Hawaii
Hawthorne Effect: From a study conducted at the Hawthorne Plant of Western Electric Company in
1927-1932 which found that the act of showing people that you are concerned usually results in better
job performance. Studying and monitoring of activities are typically seen as being concerned and
results in improved productivity.
Hazardous Goods: See: Hazardous Material
Hazardous Material: A substance or material, which the Department of Transportation has
determined to be capable of posing a risk to health, safety, and property when stored or transported
in commerce. Also see: Material Safety Data Sheet
HazMat: See Hazardous Material
Hedge Inventory: A form of inventory buildup to buffer against some event that may not happen.
Hedge inventory planning involves speculation related to potential labor strikes, price increases,
unsettled governments, and events that could severely impair a company’s strategic initiatives. Risk
and consequences are unusually high, and top management approval is often required.
Heijunka: In the Just-in-Time philosophy, an approach to level production throughout the supply
chain to match the planned rate of end product sales.
Hierarchy of Cost Assignability: In cost accounting, an approach to group activity costs at the level
of an organization where they are incurred, or can be directly related to. Examples are the level where
individual units are identified (unit-level), where batches of units are organized or processed (batchlevel),
where a process is operated or supported (process-level), or where costs cannot be objectively
assigned to lower level activities or processes (facility-level). This approach is used to better
understand the nature of the costs, including the level in the organization at which they are incurred,
the level to which they can be initially assigned (attached) and the degree to which they are
assignable to other activity and/or cost object levels, i.e. activity or cost object cost, or sustaining
costs.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 73 of 167
Highway Trust Fund: Federal highway use tax revenues are paid into this fund, and the federal
government’s share of highway construction is paid from the fund.
Highway Use Taxes: Taxes assessed by federal and state governments against users of the highway
(the fuel tax is an example). The use tax money is used to pay for the construction, maintenance, and
policing of highways.
Hi-low: Usually refers to a forklift truck on which the operator must stand rather than sit.
Home Page: The starting point for a website. It is the page that is retrieved and displayed by default
when a user visits the website. The default home-page name for a server depends on the server's
configuration. On many web servers, it is index.html or default.htm. Some web servers support
multiple home pages.
Honeycombing: 1. The practice of removing merchandise in pallet load quantities where the space is
not exhausted in an orderly fashion. This results in inefficiencies due to the fact that the received
merchandise may not be efficiently stored in the space which is created by the honey-combing. 2.
The storing or withdrawal or supplies in a manner that results in vacant space that is not usable for
storage of other items. 3. Creation of unoccupied space resulting from withdrawal of unit loads. This
is one of the major hidden costs of warehousing.
Hopper Cars: Rail cars that permit top loading and bottom unloading of bulk commodities; some
hopper cars have permanent tops with hatches to provide protection against the elements.
Horizontal Play/Horizontal Hub: This is a term for a function that cuts across many industries,
usually defines a facility or organization that is providing a common service.
Hoshin Planning: Breakthrough planning. A Japanese strategic planning process in which a company
develops up to four vision statements that indicate where the company should be in the next five
years. Company goals and work plans are developed based on the vision statements. Periodic audits
are then conducted to monitor progress.
Hostler: An individual employed to move trucks and trailers within a terminal or warehouse yard
area.
Household Goods Warehouse: A warehouse that is used to store household goods.
HR: See Human Resources
HTML: See HyperText Markup Language
HTTP: See HyperText Transport Protocol
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 74 of 167
Hub: 1) A large retailer or manufacturer having many trading partners. 2) A reference for a
transportation network as in “hub and spoke” which is common in the airline and trucking industry.
For example, a hub airport serves as the focal point for the origin and termination of long-distance
flights where flights from outlying areas are fed into the hub airport for connecting flights. 3) A
common connection point for devices in a network. 4) A Web "hub" is one of the initial names for what
is now known as a "portal". It came from the creative idea of producing a website, which would
contain many different "portal spots" (small boxes that looked like ads, with links to different yet
related content). This content, combined with Internet technology, made this idea a milestone in the
development and appearance of websites, primarily due to the ability to display a lot of useful content
and store one's preferred information on a secured server. The web term "hub" was replaced with
portal.
Hub Airport: An airport that serves as the focal point for the origin and termination of long-distance
flights; flights from outlying areas are fed into the hub airport for connecting flights.
Human-Machine Interface: Any point where data is communicated from a worker to a computer or
from a computer to a worker. Data entry programs, inquire programs, reports, documents, LED
displays, and voice commands are all examples of human-machine interfaces.
Human Resources (HR): The function broadly responsible for personnel policies and practices within
an organization.
Hundredweight (cwt): A pricing unit used in transportation (equal to 100 pounds).
Hybrid Inventory System: An inventory system combining features of the fixed reorder quantity
inventory model and the fixed reorder cycle inventory model. Features of the fixed reorder cycle
inventory model and the fixed reorder quantity inventory model can be combined in many different
ways. For example, in the order point-periodic review combination system, an order is placed if the
inventory level drops below a specified level before the review date; if not, the order quantity is
determined at the next review date. Another hybrid inventory system is the optional replenishment
model. Also see: Fixed Reorder Cycle Inventory Model, Fixed Reorder Quantity Inventory Model,
Optional Replenishment Model
Hyperlink: A computer term. Also referred to as “link”. The text you find on a website which can be
"clicked on" with a mouse which, in turn, will take you to another web page or a different area of the
same web page. Hyperlinks are created or "coded" in HTML.
Hyperlink: Also known as link. The text you find on a website which can be "clicked on" with a mouse
which, in turn, will take you to another web page or a different area of the same web page. Hyperlinks
are created or "coded" in HTML.
HyperText Markup Language (HTML): The standard language for describing the contents and
appearance of pages on the World Wide Web.
HyperText Transport Protocol (HTTP): The Internet protocol that allows World Wide Web browsers
to retrieve information from servers.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 75 of 167
I
IATA: See International Air Transport Association
ICAO: See International Civil Aeronautics Organization
ICC: See Interstate Commerce Commission
Igloos: Pallets and containers used in air transportation; the igloo shape is designed to fit the internal
wall contours of a narrow-body airplane.
Image Processing: allows a company to take electronic photographs of documents. The electronic
photograph then can be stored in a computer and retrieved from computer storage to replicate the
document on a printer. The thousands of bytes of data composing a single document are encoded in
an optical disk. Many carriers now use image processing to provide proof-of-delivery documents to a
shipper. The consignee signs an electronic pad that automatically digitizes a consignee's signature for
downloading into a computer. A copy of that signature then can be produced to demonstrate that a
delivery took place.
IMB: See International Maritime Bureau
IMC: See Intermodal marketing company
IMO: See International Maritime Organization
Import: Movement of products from one country into another. The import of automobiles from
Germany to the U.S. is an example.
Importation Point: The location (port, airport or border crossing) where goods will be cleared for
importation into a country.
Import/Export License: Official authorization issued by a government allowing the shipping or
delivery of a product across national boundaries.
Impressions: With regard to online advertising, it is the number of times an ad banner is downloaded
and presumably seen by users. Guaranteed impressions refer to the minimum number of times an ad
banner will be seen by users.
In Bond: Goods are held or transported In-Bond under customs control either until import duties or
other charges are paid, or to avoid paying the duties or charges until a later date.
Inbound Logistics: The movement of materials from suppliers and vendors into production
processes or storage facilities.
Incentive Rate: A rate designed to induce the shipper to ship heavier volumes per shipment.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 76 of 167
INCOTERMS: International terms of sale developed by the International Chamber of Commerce to
define sellers' and buyers' responsibilities.
Independent action: A carrier that is a member of a rate bureau has the right to publish a rate that
differs from the rate published by the rate bureau.
Independent Demand Item Management Models: Models for the management of items whose
demand is not strongly influenced by other items managed by the same company. These models can
be characterized as follows: (1) stochastic or deterministic, depending on the variability of demand
and other factors; (2) fixed quantity, fixed cycle, or hybrid - (optional replenishment). Also see: Fixed
Reorder Cycle Inventory Model, Fixed Reorder Quantity Inventory Model, Optional Replenishment
Model
Independent Trading Exchange (ITE): Often used synonymously with B2B, e-marketplace or
Virtual Commerce Network (VCN). ITE is a more precise term, connoting many-to-many transactions,
whereas the others do not specify the transactions.
Indirect Cost: A resource or activity cost that cannot be directly traced to a final cost object since no
direct or repeatable cause-and-effect relationship exists. An indirect cost uses an assignment or
allocation to transfer cost. Also see: Direct Cost, Support Costs
Indirect/Distributor Channel: Your company sells and ships to the distributor. The distributor sells
and ships to the end user. This may occur in multiple stages. Ultimately your products may pass
through the Indirect/Distributor Channel and arrive at a retail outlet. Order information in this channel
may be transmitted by electronic means. These means may include EDI, brokered systems, or linked
electronic systems.
Indirect Retail Locations: A retail location that ultimately sells your product to consumers, but who
purchases your products from an intermediary, like a distributor or wholesaler.
Infinite Loading: Calculation of the capacity required at work centers in the time periods required
regardless of the capacity available to perform this work.
Information Systems (IS): Managing the flow of data in an organization in a systematic, structured
way to assist in planning, implementing, and controlling.
Inherent Advantage: The cost and service benefits of one mode compared with other modes.
Inland Bill of Lading: The carriage contract used in transport from a shipping point overland to the
exporter's international carrier location.
Inland Carrier: An enterprise that offers overland service to or from a point of import or export.
Insourcing: The opposite of outsourcing, that is, a serve performed in-house.
Inspection Certificate: A document certifying that merchandise (such as perishable goods) was in
good condition immediately prior to shipment.
Integrated Carrier: A company that offers a blend of transportation services such as land, sea and
air carriage, freight forwarding, and ground handling.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 77 of 167
Integrated Logistics: A comprehensive, system-wide view of the entire supply chain as a single
process, from raw materials supply through finished goods distribution. All functions that make up the
supply chain are managed as a single entity, rather than managing individual functions separately.
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN): A computer term describing the networks and
equipment for integrated broadband transmissions of data, voice, and image, from rates of 144 Kbps
to 2 Mbps. ISDN allows integration of data, voice, and video over the same digital links.
Integrated Tow Barge: A series of barges that are connected together to operate as one unit.
Intellectual Property (IP): Property of an enterprise or individual which is typically maintained in a
digital form. This may include software program code or digital documents, music, videos, etc.
Interchange: In EDI, the exchange of electronic information between companies. Also, the group of
transaction sets transmitted from one sender to one receiver at one time. Delineated by interchange
control segments.
Intercoastal Carriers: Water carriers that transport freight between East and West Coast ports,
usually by way of the Panama Canal.
Intercorporate Hauling: A private carrier hauling the goods of a subsidiary and charging the
subsidiary a fee: this is legal if the subsidiary is wholly owned (100%) or if the private carrier has
common carrier authority.
Interleaving: The practice of assigning an employee multiple tasks which are performed
concurrently.
Interline: Two or more motor carriers working together to haul the shipment to a destination.
Carrier equipment may be interchanged from one carrier to the next, but usually the shipment is
rehandled without the equipment.
Intermediately Positioned Warehouse: A warehouse located between customers and
manufacturing plants to provide increased customer service and reduced distribution cost.
Intermittent-flow, fixed-path equipment: Materials handling devices that include cranes,
monorails, and stacker cranes.
Intermodal Container Transfer Facility: A facility where cargo is transferred from one mode of
transportation to another, usually from ship or truck to rail.
Intermodal Marketing Company (IMC): An intermediary that sells intermodal services to shippers.
Intermodal Transportation: Transporting freight by using two or more transportation modes such
as by truck and rail or truck and oceangoing vessel.
Intermodal transport unit (ITU): Container, swap body or semi-trailer/goods road motor vehicle
suitable for intermodal transport.
Internal Customer: The recipient (person or department) of another person’s or department’s output
(good, service, or information) within an organization. Also see: Customer
SUPPLY CHAIN and LO

برچسب ها: TERMS and GLOSSARY Updated October 2006 Definitions compiled by: Kate Vitasek Supply Chain Visions www.scvisions.com Bellevue، Washington Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions، nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted. Page 70 of 167 Global Standards Management Process (GSMP): The Global Standards Management Process (GSMP) is the Global Process established in January 2002 by EAN International and the Uniform Code Council، Inc. (UCC) for the development and maintenance of Global Standards and Global Implementation Guidelines that are part of the EAN.UCC system. Global Strategy: A strategy that focuses on improving worldwide performance through the sales and marketing of common goods and services with minimum product variation by country. Its competitive advantage grows through selecting the best locations for operations in other countries. Global Trade Item Number (GTIN): A unique number that comprises up to 14 digits and is used to identify an item (product or service) upon which there is a need to retrieve pre-defined information that may be priced، ordered or invoiced at any point in the supply chain. The definition covers raw materials through end user products and includes services، all of which have pre-defined characteristics. GTIN is the globally-unique EAN.UCC System identification number، or key،  

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SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 57 of 167
ETD: The Estimated Time of Departure
Ethernet: A computer term for the most commonly used type of local area network (LAN)
communication protocol using coaxial or twisted pair wiring.
Ethical Standards: A set of guidelines for proper conduct by business professionals.
European Article Number (EAN): A defined numbering mechanism used in Europe to uniquely
identify every retail product and packaging option. The EAN is similar in concept and design to the UPC
code and is usually what the barcode represents on goods. Also see: Uniform Product Code
EVA: See Economic Value Added
Evaluated Receipts Settlement (ERS): A process for authorizing payment for goods based on
actual receipts with purchase order data, when price has already been negotiated. The basic premise
behind ERS is that all of the information in the invoice is already transmitted in the shipping
documentation. Therefore, the invoice is eliminated and the shipping documentation is used to pay the
vendor.
Exception-Based Processing: A computer term for applications that automatically highlight
particular events or results which fall outside pre-determined parameters. This saves considerable
effort by automatically finding problems and alerting the right persons. An example would be where a
shorted item on a purchase order receipt would automatically notify a purchasing agent for follow-up.
Exception Message: See Action Message
Exception Rate: A deviation from the class rate; changes (exceptions) made to the classification.
Excess and Obsolescence (E&O): The accounting value assigned to the cost associated with
inventory that is disposed of as being excess or obsolete.
Exclusive Patronage Agreements: A shipper agrees to use only member liner firms of a conference
in return for a 10% to 15% rate reduction.
Exclusive Use: Carrier vehicles that are assigned to a specific shipper for its exclusive use.
Executive Dashboard: A series of cross-functional metrics that span the performance of the entire
company and indicate the overall health of the company. Usually an Executive Dashboard includes the
top KPIs for the company – and when possible is limited to the ‘vital few’ that fit on a one page
summary.
Exempt Carrier: A for-hire carrier that is free from economic regulation. Trucks hauling certain
commodities are exempt from Interstate Commerce Commission economic regulation. By far the
largest portion of exempt carriers transports agricultural commodities or seafood.
Expediting: 1) Moving shipments through regular channels at an accelerated rate. 2) To take
extraordinary action because of an increase in relative priority. Synonym: Stockchase
Expert System: A computer program that mimics a human expert.
Explode-to-Deduct: See Backflush
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 58 of 167
Exponential Smoothing Forecast: In forecasting, a type of weighted moving average forecasting
technique in which past observations are geometrically discounted according to their age. The heaviest
weight is assigned to the most recent data. The smoothing is termed exponential because data points
are weighted in accordance with an exponential function of their age. The technique makes use of a
smoothing constant to apply to the difference between the most recent forecast and the critical sales
data, thus avoiding the necessity of carrying historical sales data. The approach can be used for data
that exhibit no trend or seasonal patterns. Higher order exponential smoothing models can be used for
data with either (or both) trend and seasonality
Export: 1) In logistics, the movement of products from one country to another. For example,
significant volumes of cut flowers are exported from The Netherlands to other countries of the world.
2) A computer term referring to the transfer of information from a source (system or database) to a
target.
Export Broker: An enterprise that brings together buyer and seller for a fee, then eventually
withdraws from the transaction.
Export Compliance: Complying with rules for exporting products, including packaging, labeling, and
documentation.
Export Declaration: A document required by the Department of commerce that provides information
as to the nature, value, etc., of export activity.
Export License: A document secured from a government authorizing an exporter to export a specific
quantity of a controlled commodity to a certain country. An export license is often required if a
government has placed embargoes or other restrictions upon exports.
Export sales contract: The initial document in any international transaction; it details the specifics of
the sales agreement between the buyer and seller.
Exporter Identification Number (EIN): A number required for the exporter on the Shipper's Export
Declaration. A corporation may use their Federal Employer Identification Number as issued by the
IRS; individuals can use their Social Security Numbers.
Exports: A term used to describe products produced in one country and sold in another. Also see:
Export
Express: 1) Carrier payment to its customers when ships, rail cars, or trailers are unloaded or loaded
in less than the time allowed by contract and returned to the carrier for use. See: demurrage,
detention. 2) The use of priority package delivery to achieve overnight or second-day delivery.
Extended Enterprise: The notion that supply chain partners form a larger entity which works
together as though it were a single unit.
Extensible Markup Language (XML): A computer term for a language that facilitates direct
communication among computers on the Internet. Unlike the older hypertext markup language
(HTML), which provides data tags giving instructions to a web browser about how to display
information, XML tags give instructions to a browser or to application software which help to define the
specifics about the category of information.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 59 of 167
External Factory: A situation where suppliers are viewed as an extension of the firm’s manufacturing
capabilities and capacities. The same practices and concerns that are commonly applied to the
management of the firm’s manufacturing system should also be applied to the management of the
external factory.
Extranet: A computer term describing a private network (or a secured link on the public internet) that
links separate organizations and that uses the same software and protocols as the Internet. Used for
improving supply chain management. For example, extranets are used to provide access to a supply
chain partner’s internal inventory data which is not available to unrelated parties. Antonym: Intranet
Extrinsic Forecast: In forecasting, a forecast based on a correlated leading indicator, such as
estimating furniture sales based on housing starts. Extrinsic forecasts tend to be more useful for large
aggregations, such as total company sales, than for individual product sales. Ant: intrinsic forecast
method
EXW: See Ex Works
Ex Works (EXW): An international trade term (Incoterms, International Chamber of Commerce)
requiring the seller to deliver goods at his or her own place of business. All other transportation costs
and risks are assumed by the buyer.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 60 of 167
F
FA: See Functional Acknowledgment
Fabricator: A manufacturer that turns the product of a raw materials supplier into a larger variety of
products. A fabricator may turn steel rods into nuts, bolts, and twist drills, or may turn paper into
bags and boxes.
Facilities: The physical plant, distribution centers, service centers, and related equipment.
Factory Gate Pricing: Like DSD in reverse, factory gate pricing (FGP) is a supply chain initiative that
has been gaining popularity among retailers in England. With FGP, retailers buy goods at the suppliers'
"gate" and take care of getting it to their stores or distribution centers, either with their own trucks or
those of their contracted carriers.
Failure Modes Effects Analysis (FMEA): A pro-active method of predicting faults and failures so
that preventive action can be taken.
Fair Return: A level of profit that enables a carrier to realize a rate of return on investment or
property value that the regulatory agencies deem acceptable for that level of risk.
Fair-share Quantity Logic: In inventory management, the process of equitably allocating available
stock among field distribution centers. Fair-share quantity logic is normally used when stock available
from a central inventory location is less than the cumulative requirements of the field stocking
locations. The use of fair-share quantity logic involves procedures that “push” stock out to the field,
instead of allowing the field to “pull” in what is needed. The objective is to maximize customer service
from the limited available inventory.
Fair value: The value of the carrier’s property; the basis of calculation has included original cost
minus depreciation, replacement cost, and market value.
FAK: See Freight all kinds
FAS: See Final Assembly Schedule
FAS: See Free Alongside Ship
FAST: See Fast and Secure Trade
FAS: See Free Alongside Ship
Fast and Secure Trade (FAST): U.S. Customs program that allows importers on the U.S./Canada
border to obtain expedited release for qualifying commercial shipments.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 61 of 167
Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG): Fast Moving Consumer Goods are packaged commercial
products that are consumed through use. They include pre-packaged food and drinks, alcohol, health
and beauty items, tobacco products, paper products, household cleansers and chemicals, animal care
items, anything that we need, can buy right off the shelf, and use up through daily living.
FCL: See Full Container Load
Feature: A distinctive characteristic of a good or service. The characteristic is provided by an option,
accessory, or attachment. For example, in ordering a new car, the customer must specify an engine
type and size (option), but need not necessarily select an air conditioner (attachment).
Federal Aviation Administration: The federal agency charged with administering federal safety
regulations governing air transportation.
Federal Maritime Commission: A regulatory agency that controls services, practices, and
agreements of international water common carriers and noncontiguous domestic water carriers.
Feeder Railroad Development Program: A Federal program which allows any financially
responsible person (except Class I and Class II carriers) with ICC approval to acquire a rail line having
a density of less than 3 million gross ton-miles per year, in order to avert the line being abandoned.
FEU: See Forty-foot Equivalent Unit
FG: See Finished Goods Inventory
FGI: See Finished Goods Inventory
Field Finished Goods: Inventory which is kept at locations outside the four walls of the
manufacturing plant (i.e., distribution center or warehouse).
Field Service: See After-Sale Service
Field Service Parts: Parts inventory kept at locations outside the four walls of the manufacturing
plant (i.e., distribution center or warehouse).
Field warehouse: A warehouse on the property of the owner of the goods that stores goods that are
under the custody of a bona fide public warehouse manager. The public warehouse receipt is used as
collateral for a loan.
FIFO: See First In, First Out
File Transfer Protocol (FTP): The Internet service that transfers files from one computer to
another, over standard phone lines.
Filed rate doctrine: The legal rate the common carrier may charge; is the rate published in the
carrier’s tariff on file with the ICC.
Fill Rate: The percentage of order items that the picking operation actually fills within a given period
of time.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 62 of 167
Fill Rates by Order: Whether orders are received and released consistently, or released from a
blanket purchase order, this metric measures the percentage of ship-from-stock orders shipped within
24 hours of order "release”. Make-to-Stock schedules attempt to time the availability of finished goods
to match forecasted customer orders or releases. Orders that were not shipped within 24 hours due
to consolidation but were available for shipment within 24 hours are reported separately. In
calculating elapsed time for order fill rates, the interval begins at ship release and ends when material
is consigned for shipment.
Calculation:
[Number of orders filled from stock shipped within 24 hours of order release] / [Total number of
stock orders]
Note: The same concept of fill rates can be applied to order lines and individual
products to provide statistics on percentage of lines shipped completely and
percentage of products shipped completely.
Final Assembly: The highest level assembled product, as it is shipped to customers. This terminology
is typically used when products consist of many possible features and options that may only be
combined when an actual order is received. Also see: End Item, Assemble to Order
Final Assembly Schedule (FAS): A schedule of end items to finish the product for specific
customers’ orders in a make-to-order or assemble-to-order environment. It is also referred to as the
finishing schedule because it may involve operations other than just the final assembly; also, it may
not involve assembly, but simply final mixing, cutting, packaging, etc. The FAS is prepared after
receipt of a customer order as constrained by the availability of material and capacity, and it
schedules the operations required to complete the product from the level where it is stocked (or
master scheduled) to the end-item level.
Finance Lease: An equipment-leasing arrangement that provides the lessee with a means of
financing for the leased equipment; a common method for leasing motor carrier trailers.
Financial Responsibility: Motor carriers are required to have body injury and property damage (not
cargo) insurance or not less than $500,000 per incident per vehicle; higher financial responsibility
limits apply for motor carriers transporting oil or hazardous materials.
Finished Goods Inventory (FG or FGI): Products completely manufactured, packaged, stored, and
ready for distribution. Also see: End Item
Finite Forward Scheduling: An equipment scheduling technique that builds a schedule by
proceeding sequentially from the initial period to the final period while observing capacity limits. A
Gantt chart may be used with this technique. Also see: Finite Scheduling
Finite Scheduling: A scheduling methodology where work is loaded into work centers such that no
work center capacity requirement exceeds the capacity available for that work center. See: drumbuffer-
rope, finite forward scheduling.
Firewall: A computer term for a method of protecting the files and programs on one network from
users on another network. A firewall blocks unwanted access to a protected network while giving the
protected network access to networks outside of the firewall. A company will typically install a firewall
to give users access to the Internet while protecting their internal information.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 63 of 167
Firm Planned Order: A planned order which has been committed to production. Also see: Planned
Order
First In, First Out (FIFO): Warehouse term meaning first items stored are the first used. In
accounting this tem is associated with the valuing of inventory such that the latest purchases are
reflected in book inventory. Also see: Book Inventory
First Mover Advantage: Market innovator, putting the company in the leadership position.
First Pass Yield: The ratio of usable, specification conforming output from a process to its input,
achieved without rework or reprocessing.
Fixed Costs: Costs, which do not fluctuate with business volume in the short run. Fixed costs include
items such as depreciation on buildings and fixtures.
Fixed Interval Inventory Model: A setup wherein each time an order is placed for an item, the
same (fixed) quantity is ordered.
Fixed Interval Order System: See Fixed Reorder Cycle Inventory Model
Fixed Order Quantity: A lot-sizing technique in MRP or inventory management that will always cause
planned or actual orders to be generated for a predetermined fixed quantity, or multiples thereof if net
requirements for the period exceed the fixed order quantity.
Fixed Order Quantity System: See Fixed Reorder Cycle Inventory Model
Fixed Overhead: Traditionally, all manufacturing costs, other than direct labor and direct materials,
that continue even if products are not produced. Although fixed overhead is necessary to produce the
product, it cannot be directly traced to the final product. Also see: Indirect Cost
Fixed-Period Requirements: A lot-sizing technique that sets the order quantity to the demand for a
given number of periods. Also see: Discrete Order Quantity
Fixed Quantity Inventory Model: A setup wherein a company orders the same (fixed) quantity
each time it places an order for an item.
Fixed Reorder Cycle Inventory Model: A form of independent demand management model in
which an order is placed every “n” time units. The order quantity is variable and essentially replaces
the items consumed during the current time period. Let “M” be the maximum inventory desired at any
time, and let x be the quantity on hand at the time the order is placed. Then, in the simplest model,
the order quantity will be M – x. The quantity M must be large enough to cover the maximum
expected demand during the lead time plus a review interval. The order quantity model becomes more
complicated whenever the replenishment lead time exceeds the review interval, because outstanding
orders then have to be factored into the equation. These reorder systems are sometimes called fixedinterval
order systems, order level systems, or periodic review systems. Synonyms: Fixed-Interval
Order System, Fixed-Order Quantity System, Order Level System, Periodic Review System, Time-
Based Order System. Also see: Fixed Reorder Quantity Inventory Model, Hybrid Inventory System,
Independent Demand Item Management Models, Optional Replenishment Model
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 64 of 167
Fixed Reorder Quantity Inventory Model: A form of independent demand item management
model in which an order for a fixed quantity is placed whenever stock on hand plus on order reaches a
predetermined reorder level. The fixed order quantity may be determined by the economic order
quantity, by a fixed order quantity (such as a carton or a truckload), or by another model yielding a
fixed result. The reorder point may be deterministic or stochastic, and in either instance is large
enough to cover the maximum expected demand during the replenishment lead time. Fixed reorder
quantity models assume the existence of some form of a perpetual inventory record or some form of
physical tracking, e.g., a two-bin system that is able to determine when the reorder point is reached.
Synonym: Fixed Order Quantity System, Lot Size System, Order Point-Order Quantity System,
Quantity Based Order System. Also see: Fixed Reorder Cycle Inventory Model, Hybrid Inventory
System, Independent Demand Item Management Models, Optional Replenishment Model, Order Point
– Order Management System
Fixed-Location Storage: A method of storage in which a relatively permanent location is assigned
for the storage of each item in a storeroom or warehouse. Although more space is needed to store
parts than in a random-location storage system, fixed locations become familiar, and therefore a
locator file may not be needed. Also see: Random-Location Storage
Flag of Convenience: A shipowner registers a ship in a nation that offers conveniences in the areas
of taxes, manning, and safety requirements; Liberia and Panama are two nations known for flags of
convenience.
Flat: A loadable platform having no superstructure whatever but having the same length and width as
the base of a container and equipped with top and bottom corner fittings. This is an alternative term
used for certain types of specific purpose containers - namely platform containers and platform-based
containers with incomplete structures
Flatbed: A flatbed is a type of truck trailer that consists of a floor and no enclosure. A flatbed may be
used with “sideboards” or “tie downs” which keep loose cargo from falling off.
Flatcar: A rail car without sides; used for hauling machinery.
Flat File: A computer term which refers to any file having fixed-record length, or in EDI, the file
produced by EDI translation software to serve as input to the interface. Usually includes the same
fields as the original file, but each field is expanded to its maximum length. Does not have delimiters.
Flexibility: Ability to respond quickly and efficiently to changing customer and consumer demands.
Flexible-Path Equipment: Materials handling devices that include hand trucks and forklifts.
Flexible Specialization: a strategy based on multi-use equipment, skilled workers and innovative
senior management to accommodate the continuous change that occurs in the marketplace.
Float: The time required for documents, payments, etc. to get from one trading partner to another.
Floor-Ready Merchandise (FRM): Goods shipped by suppliers to retailers with all necessary tags,
prices, security devices, etc. already attached, so goods can be cross docked rapidly through retail
DCs, or received directly at stores.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 65 of 167
Flow Rack: Storage rack that utilizes shelves (metal) that are equipped with rollers or wheels. Such
an arrangement allows product and materials to "flow" from the back of the rack to the front and
therein making the product more accessible for small-quantity order-picking.
Flow-Through Distribution: A process in a distribution center in which products from multiple
locations are brought in to the D.C. and are re-sorted by delivery destination and shipped in the same
day. Also known as a "cross-dock" process in the transportation business. See Cross Docking.
FMCG: See Fast Moving Consumer Goods
FMEA: See Failure Modes Effects Analysis
FOB: See Free on Board
FOB Destination: Title passes at destination, and seller has total responsibility until shipment is
delivered.
FOB Origin: Title passes at origin, and buyer has total responsibility over the goods while in
shipment.
For-Hire Carrier: A carrier that provides transportation service to the public on a fee basis.
Forecast: An estimate of future demand. A forecast can be constructed using quantitative methods,
qualitative methods, or a combination of methods, and it can be based on extrinsic (external) or
intrinsic (internal) factors. Various forecasting techniques attempt to predict one or more of the four
components of demand: cyclical, random, seasonal, and trend. Also see: Box-Jenkins Model,
Exponential Smoothing Forecast, Extrinsic Forecasting Method, Intrinsic Forecasting Method,
Qualitative Forecasting Method, Quantitative Forecasting Method
Forecast Accuracy: Measures how accurate your forecast is as a percent of actual units or dollars
shipped, calculated as 1 minus the absolute value of the difference between forecasted demand and
actual demand, as a percentage of actual demand.
Calculation:
[1-(|Sum of Variances|/Sum of Actual)]
Forecast Cycle: Cycle time between forecast regenerations that reflect true changes in marketplace
demand for shippable end products.
Forecasting: Predictions of how much of a product will be purchased by customers. Relies upon both
quantitative and qualitative methods. Also see: Forecast
Foreign Trade Zone (FTZ): An area or zone set aside at or near a port or airport, under the control
of the U.S. Customs Service, for holding goods duty-free pending customs clearance.
Forklift truck: A machine-powered device that is used to raise and lower freight and to move freight
to different warehouse locations.
Form utility: The value created in a good by changing its form, through the production process.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 66 of 167
Four P’s: A set of marketing tools to direct the business offering to the customer. The four P’s are
product, price, place, and promotion.
Fourier Series: In forecasting, a form of analysis useful for forecasting. The model is based on fitting
sine waves with increasing frequencies and phase angles to a time series.
Four Wall Inventory: The stock which is contained within a single facility or building.
Fourth-Party Logistics (4PL): Differs from third party logistics in the following ways; 1)4PL
organization is often a separate entity established as a joint venture or long-term contract between a
primary client and one or more partners; 2) 4PL organization acts as a single interface between the
client and multiple logistics service providers; 3) All aspects (ideally) of the client’s supply chain are
managed by the 4PL organization; and, 4) It is possible for a major third-party logistics provider to
form a 4PL organization within its existing structure. The term was registered by Accenture as a
trademark in 1996 and defined as "A supply chain integrator that assembles and manages the
resources, capabilities, and technology of its own organization with those of complementary service
providers to deliver a comprehensive supply chain solution.", but is no longer registered Also see:
Lead Logistics Provider
Forty-foot Equivalent Unit (FEU): A standard size intermodal container.
Foxhole: See Silo
Free Alongside Ship (FAS): A term of sale indicating the seller is liable for all changes and risks
until the goods sold are delivered to the port on a dock that will be used by the vessel. Title passes to
the buyer when the seller has secured a clean dock or ship’s receipt of goods. The seller agrees to
deliver the goods to the dock alongside the overseas vessel that is to carry the shipment. The seller
pays the cost of getting the shipment to the dock; the buyer contracts the carrier, obtains
documentation, and assumes all responsibility from that point forward.
Free on Board (FOB): Contractual terms between a buyer and a seller, that define where title
transfer takes place.
Free Time: The period of time allowed for the removal or accumulation of cargo before charges
become applicable.
Freezing Inventory Balances: In most cycle counting programs the term "freezing" refers to
copying the current on-hand inventory balance into the cycle count file. This may also be referred to
as taking a snapshot of the inventory balance. It rarely means that the inventory is actually frozen in
a way that prevents transactions from occurring.
Freight: Goods being transported from one place to another.
Freight-all-kinds (FAK): An approach to rate making whereby the ante is based only upon the
shipment weight and distance; widely used in TOFC service.
Freight Bill: The carrier’s invoice for transportation charges applicable to a freight shipment.
Freight Carriers: Companies that haul freight, also called "for-hire" carriers. Methods of
transportation include trucking, railroads, airlines, and sea borne shipping.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 67 of 167
Freight Charge: The rate established for transporting freight.
Freight Collect: The freight and charges to be paid by the consignee.
Freight Consolidation: The grouping of shipments to obtain reduced costs or improved utilization of
the transportation function. Consolidation can occur by market area grouping, grouping according to
scheduled deliveries, or using third-party pooling services such as public warehouses and freight
forwarders.
Freight Forwarder: An organization which provides logistics services as an intermediary between the
shipper and the carrier, typically on international shipments. Freight forwarders provide the ability to
respond quickly and efficiently to changing customer and consumer demands and international
shipping (import/export) requirements.
Freight Forwarders Institute: The freight forwarder industry association.
Freight Prepaid: The freight and charges to be paid by the consignor.
FRM: See Floor Ready Merchandise
Fronthaul: The first leg of the truck trip that involves hauling a load or several loads to targeted
destinations.
Frozen Zone: In forecasting, this is the period in which no changes can be made to scheduled work
orders based on changes in demand. Use of a frozen zone provides stability in the manufacturing
schedule.
FTE: See Full Time Equivalents
FTL: See Full Truckload
FTP: See File Transfer Protocol
FTZ: See Free Trade Zone
Fulfillment: The act of fulfilling a customer order. Fulfillment includes order management, picking,
packaging, and shipping.
Full Container load (FCL): A term used when goods occupy a whole container.
Full-Service Leasing: An equipment-leasing arrangement that includes a variety of services to
support leased equipment (i.e., motor carrier tractors).
Full-Time Equivalents (FTE): Frequently organizations make use of contract and temporary
employees; please convert contract, part-time, and temporary employees to full-time equivalents. For
example, two contract employees who worked for six months full-time and a half-time regular
employee would constitute 1.5 full-time equivalents. 1 FTE = 2000 hours per year.
Full Truckload (FTL): A term which defines a shipment which occupies at least one complete truck
trailer, or allows for no other shippers goods to be carried at the same time.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 68 of 167
Fully allocated cost: The variable cost associated with a particular unit of output plus an allocation of
common cost.
Functional Acknowledgment (FA): A specific EDI Transaction Set (997) sent by the recipient of an
EDI message to confirm the receipt of data but with no indication as to the recipient application’s
response to the message. The FA will confirm that the message contained the correct number of lines,
etc. via control summaries, but does not report on the validity of the data.
Functional Group: Part of the hierarchical structure of EDI transmissions, a Functional Group
contains one or more related Transaction Sets preceded by a Functional Group header and followed by
a Functional Group trailer
Functional Metric: A number resulting from an equation, showing the impact of one or more parts
of a functional/department process. This is also known as a results measure as the metric measures
the results of one aspect of the business. Example: Distribution Center Fill Rate.
Functional Silo: A view of an organization where each department or functional group is operated
independent of other groups within the organization. Each group is referred to as a “Silo”. This is the
opposite of an integrated structure.
Future Order: An order entered for shipment at some future date. This may be related to new
products which are not currently available for shipment, or scheduling of future needs by the
customer.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 69 of 167
G
Gain Sharing: A method of incentive compensation where supply chain partners share collectively in
savings from productivity improvements. The concept provides an incentive to both the buying and
supplier organizations to focus on continually re-evaluating, re-energizing, and enhancing their
business relationship. All aspects of value delivery are scrutinized, including specification design, order
processing, inbound transportation, inventory management, obsolescence programs, material yield,
forecasting and inventory planning, product performance and reverse logistics. The focus is on driving
out limited value cost while protecting profit margins.
Gateway: The connection that permits messages to flow freely between two networks.
Gathering lines: Oil pipelines that bring oil from the oil well to storage areas.
GATT: See General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GDSN: See Global Data Synchronization Network
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT): The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
started as an international trade organization in 1947, and has been superseded by the World Trade
Organization (WTO). GATT (the agreement) covers international trade in goods. An updated General
Agreement is now the WTO agreement governing trade in goods. The 1986-1994 “Uruguay Round” of
GATT member discussions gave birth to the WTO and also created new rules for dealing with trade in
services, relevant aspects of intellectual property, dispute settlement, and trade policy reviews. GATT
1947: The official legal term for the old (pre-1994) version of the GATT. GATT 1994: The official legal
term for new version of the General Agreement, incorporated into the WTO, and including GATT 1947.
General Commodities Carrier: A common motor carrier that has operating authority to transport
general commodities, or all commodities not listed as special commodities.
General-Merchandise Warehouse: A warehouse that is used to store goods that are readily
handled, are packaged, and do not req1ire a controlled environment.
General Order (GO): A customs term referring to a warehouse where merchandise not entered
within five working days after the carrier's arrival is stored at the risk and expense of the importer.
GIF: See Graphics Interchange Format
Global Data Synchronization Network (GDSN): The GDSN is an Internet-based, interconnected
network of interoperable data pools and a Global Registry, the GS1 Global Registry, that enables
companies around the world to exchange standardized and synchronized supply chain data with their
trading partners.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY

برچسب ها: SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS TERMS and GLOSSARY Updated October 2006 Definitions compiled by: Kate Vitasek Supply Chain Visions www.scvisions.com Bellevue، Washington Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions، nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted. Page 57 of 167 ETD: The Estimated Time of Departure Ethernet: A computer term for the most commonly used type of local area network (LAN) communication protocol using coaxial or twisted pair wiring. Ethical Standards: A set of guidelines for proper conduct by business professionals. European Article Number (EAN): A defined numbering mechanism used in Europe to uniquely identify every retail product and packaging option. The EAN is similar in concept and design to the UPC code and is usually what the barcode represents on goods. Also see: Uniform Product Code EVA: See Economic Value Added Evaluated Receipts Settlement (ERS): A process for authorizing payment for goods based on actual receipts with purchase order data، when price has already been negotiated. The basic premise behind ERS is that all of the information in the invoice is already transmitted in the shipping documentation. Therefore، the invoice is eliminated and the shipping documentation is used to pay the vendor. Exception-Based Processing: A computer term for applications that automatically highlight particular events or results which fall outside pre-determined parameters. This saves considerable effort by automatically finding problems and alerting the right persons. An example would be where a shorted item on a purchase order receipt would automatically notify a purchasing agent for follow-up. Exception Message: See Action Message Exception Rate: A deviation from the class rate; changes (exceptions) made to the classification. Excess and Obsolescence (E&O): The accounting value assigned to the cost associated with inventory that is disposed of as being excess or obsolete. Exclusive Patronage Agreements: A shipper agrees to use only member liner firms of a conference in return for a 10% to 15% rate reduction. Exclusive Use: Carrier vehicles that are assigned to a specific shipper for its exclusive use. Executive Dashboard: A series of cross-functional metrics that span the performance of the entire company and indicate the overall health of the company. Usually an Executive Dashboard includes the top KPIs for the company – and when possible is limited to the ‘vital few’ that fit on a one page summary. Exempt Carrier: A for-hire carrier that is free from economic regulation. Trucks hauling certain commodities are exempt from Interstate Commerce Commission economic regulation. By far the largest portion of exempt carriers transports agricultural commodities or seafood. Expediting: 1) Moving shipments through regular channels at an accelerated rate. 2) To take extraordinary action because of an increase in relative priority. Synonym: Stockchase Expert System: A computer program that mimics a human expert. Explode-to-Deduct: See Backflush SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS TERMS and GLOSSARY Updated October 2006 Definitions compiled by: Kate Vitasek Supply Chain Visions www.scvisions.com Bellevue، nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted. Page 58 of 167 Exponential Smoothing Forecast: In forecasting،  

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SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 48 of 167
Disaster Recovery Planning: Contingency planning specifically related to recovering hardware and
software (e.g. data centers, application software, operations, personnel, telecommunications) in
information system outages.
Discontinuous Demand: A demand pattern that is characterized by large demands interrupted by
periods with no demand, as opposed to a continuous or steady (e.g., daily) demand. Synonym:
Lumpy Demand.
Discrete Available-to-Promise: A calculation based on the available-to-promise figure in the master
schedule. For the first period, the ATP is the sum of the beginning inventory plus the MPS quantity
minus backlog for all periods until the item is master scheduled again. For all other periods, if a
quantity has been scheduled for that time period then the ATP is this quantity minus all customer
commitments for this and other periods, until another quantity is scheduled in the MPS. For those
periods where the quantity scheduled is zero, the ATP is zero (even if deliveries have been promised).
The promised customer commitments are accumulated and shown in the period where the item was
most recently scheduled. Also see: Available-to-Promise
Discrete Manufacturing: Discrete manufacturing processes create products by assembling
unconnected distinct parts as in the production of distinct items such as automobiles, appliances, or
computers.
Discrete Order Picking: A method of picking orders in which the items on one order are picked
before the next order is picked. Also see: Batch Picking, Order Picking, Zone Picking
Discrete Order Quantity: An order quantity that represents an integer number of periods of
demand. Most MRP systems employ discrete order quantities. Also see: Fixed-period Requirements,
Least Total Cost, Least Unit Cost, Lot-for-Lot, Part Period Balancing, Period Order Quantity, Wagner-
Whitin Algorithm
Disintermediation: When the traditional sales channels are disassembled and the middleman gets
cut out of the deal. Such as where the manufacturer ships direct to a retailer, bypassing the
distributor.
Dispatching: The carrier activities involved with controlling equipment; involves arranging for fuel,
drivers, crews, equipment, and terminal space.
Distributed Inventory: Inventory that is geographically dispersed. For example, where a company
maintains inventory in multiple distribution centers to provide a higher level of customer service.
Distribution: Outbound logistics, from the end of the production line to the end user. 1) The activities
associated with the movement of material, usually finished goods or service parts, from the
manufacturer to the customer. These activities encompass the functions of transportation,
warehousing, inventory control, material handling, order administration, site and location analysis,
industrial packaging, data processing, and the communications network necessary for effective
management. It includes all activities related to physical distribution, as well as the return of goods to
the manufacturer. In many cases, this movement is made through one or more levels of field
warehouses. Synonym: Physical Distribution. 2) The systematic division of a whole into discrete parts
having distinctive characteristics.
Distribution Center (DC): The warehouse facility which holds inventory from manufacturing pending
distribution to the appropriate stores.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 49 of 167
Distribution Channel: One or more companies or individuals who participate in the flow of goods and
services from the manufacturer to the final user or consumer.
Distribution Channel Management: The organizational and pipeline strategy for getting products to
customers. Direct channels involve company sales forces, facilities, and/or direct shipments to
customers. Indirect channels involve the use of wholesalers, distributors, and/or other parties to
supply the products to customers. Many companies use both strategies, depending on markets and
effectiveness.
Distribution On Demand (DOD): The order fulfillment state a distribution operation achieves when
it can respond, closest to real time, to changes in demand while shipping 100 percent customer
compliant orders at the least cost.
Distribution Planning: The planning activities associated with transportation, warehousing,
inventory levels, materials handling, order administration, site and location planning, industrial
packaging, data processing, and communications networks to support distribution.
Distribution Requirements Planning (DRP): A system of determining demands for inventory at
distribution centers and consolidating demand information in reverse as input to the production and
materials system.
Distribution Resource Planning (DRP II): The extension of distribution requirements planning into
the planning of the key resources contained in a distribution system: warehouse space, workforce,
money, trucks, freight cars, etc.
Distribution Warehouse: A warehouse that stores finished goods and from which customer orders
are assembled.
Distributor: A business that does not manufacture its own products, but purchases and resells these
products. Such a business usually maintains a finished goods inventory. Synonym: Wholesaler
Diversion: The practice of selling goods to a competitor that the vendor assumes would be used to
service that Customer's store. Example; Grocery Store Chain A buys orange juice from Minute Maid.
Grocery Store Chain A, because of their sales volume or because of promotion, can buy product for
$12.50 per case. Grocery Store Chain B, because of a lower sales volume, buys the same orange juice
for $14.50 per case. Grocery Store Chain A and Grocery Store Chain B get together and make a deal.
Grocery Store Chain A resells that product to Grocery Store Chain B for $13.50 per case. Grocery
Store Chain A makes $1.00 per case and Grocery Store Chain B gets product for $1.00 less per case
than it can buy from Minute Maid.
Dock-to-Stock: A program by which specific quality and packaging requirements are met before the
product is released. Pre-qualified product is shipped directly into the customer's inventory. Dock-tostock
eliminates the costly handling of components, specifically in receiving and inspection and
enables product to move directly into production.
Document: In EDI, a form, such as an invoice or a purchase order, that trading partners have agreed
to exchange and that the EDI software handles within its compliance-checking logic.
DOA: See Dead on Arrival
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 50 of 167
Dock Receipt: A receipt that indicates an export shipment has been delivered to a steamship
company by a domestic carrier.
Documentation: The papers attached or pertaining to goods requiring transportation and/or transfer
of ownership. These may include the packing list, hazardous materials declarations, export / customs
documents, etc.
DOD: See Distribution on Demand
DOE: See Design of Experiments
Domain: A computer term for the following: 1) Highest subdivision of the Internet, for the most part
by country (except in the U.S., where it's by type of organization, such as educational, commercial,
and government). Usually the last part of a host name; for example, the domain part of ibm.com is
.com, which represents the domain of commercial sites in the U.S. 2) In corporate data networks, a
group of client computers controlled by a server system.
Domestic Trunk Line Carrier: An air carrier classification for carriers that operate between major
population centers. These carriers are now classified as major carriers.
Dormant route: A route over which a carrier failed to provide service 5 days a week for 13 weeks out
of a 26-week period.
Double Bottoms: A motor carrier operation involving two trailers being pulled by one tractor.
Double Order Point System: A distribution inventory management system that has two order
points. The smallest equals the original order point, which covers demand during replenishment lead
time. The second order point is the sum of the first order point plus normal usage during
manufacturing lead time. It enables warehouses to forewarn manufacturing of future replenishment
orders.
Double-pallet jack: A mechanized device for transporting two standard pallets simultaneously.
Double Stack: Two containers, one on top of the other, loaded on a railroad flatcar; an intermodal
service.
Download: To merge temporary files containing a day’s or week’s worth of information with the main
data base in order to update it.
Downstream: Referring to the demand side of the supply chain. One or more companies or
individuals who participate in the flow of goods and services moving from the manufacturer to the final
user or consumer. Opposite of Upstream.
DPC: See Dynamic Process Control
DPL: See Denied Party List
DPP: See Direct product profitability
Drayage: Transportation of materials and freight on a local basis, but intermodal freight carriage may
also be referred to as drayage.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 51 of 167
Driving Time Regulations: Rules administered by the U.S. Department of Transportation that limit
the maximum time a driver may drive in interstate commerce; both daily and weekly maximums are
prescribed.
Drop: A situation in which an equipment operator deposits a trailer or boxcar at a facility at which it is
to be loaded or unloaded.
Drop Ship: To take the title of the product but not actually handle, stock, or deliver it, e.g., to have
one supplier ship directly to another or to have a supplier ship directly to the buyer’s customer.
DRP: See Disaster Recovery Planning
DRP: See Distribution Requirements Planning
DRPII: See Distribution Resources Planning
Drum-Buffer-Rope (DBR): In the theory of constraints, the generalized process used to manage
resources to maximize throughput. The drum is the rate or pace of production set by the system’s
constraint. The buffers establish the protection against uncertainty so that the system can maximize
throughput. The rope is a communication process from the constraint to the gating operation that
checks or limits material released into the system to support the constraint. Also see: Finite
Scheduling
DSD: See Direct Store Delivery
DSO: See Days Sales Outstanding
DSS: See Decision Support System
DTF: See Demand Time Fence
DTS: See Direct Store Delivery
Dual Operation: A motor carrier that has both common and contract carrier operating authority.
Dual Rate System: An international water carrier pricing system where a shipper signing an
exclusive use agreement with the conference pays a lower rate (10% to %15) than non-signing
shippers for an identical shipment.
Dumping: Selling goods below costs in selected markets.
Dunnage: The packing material used to protect a product from damage during transport.
DUNS Number: A unique nine-digit number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to identify a company.
DUNS stands for Data Universal Numbering System.
DUNS: Data Universal Numbering System.
Durable Goods: Generally, any goods whose continuous serviceability is likely to exceed three years
(e.g., trucks, furniture).
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 52 of 167
Duty Free Zone (DFZ): An area where goods or cargo can be stored without paying import customs
duties while awaiting manufacturing or future transport.
Dynamic Lot Sizing: Any lot-sizing technique that creates an order quantity subject to continuous
recomputation. See: Least total cost, Least unit cost, Part period balancing, Period order quantity,
Wagner-Whitin algorithm
Dynamic Process Control (DPC): Continuous monitoring of process performance and adjustment of
control parameters to optimize process output.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 53 of 167
E
EAI: See Enterprise Application Integration
EAN.UCC: European Article Numbering/ Uniform Code Council (now the European office of GS1). The
EAN.UCC System provides identification standards to uniquely identify trade items, logistics units,
locations, assets, and service relations worldwide. The identification standards define the construction
of globally-unique and unambiguous numbers.
Early Supplier Involvement (ESI): The process of involving suppliers early in the product design
activity and drawing on their expertise, insights, and knowledge to generate better designs in less
time and designs that are easier to manufacture with high quality.
Earnings Before Interest and Taxes (EBIT): A measure of a company's earning power from
ongoing operations, equal to earnings (revenues minus cost of sales, operating expenses, and taxes)
before deduction of interest payments and income taxes. Also called operating profit
EBIT: See Earnings Before Interest and Taxes
EC: See Electronic Commerce
ECO: See Engineering Change Order
E-Commerce: See Electronic Commerce
Economic Order Quantity (EOQ): An inventory model that determines how much to order by
determining the amount that will meet customer service levels while minimizing total ordering and
holding costs.
Economic Value Added (EVA): A measurement of shareholder value as a company's operating
profits after tax, less an appropriate charge for the capital used in creating the profits.
Economy of Scale: A phenomenon whereby larger volumes of production reduce unit cost by
distributing fixed costs over a larger quantity.
ECR: See Efficient Consumer Response
EDI: See Electronic Data Interchange
EDIA: See Electronic Data Interchange Association
EDIFACT: Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce, and Transport. The United
Nations EDI standard.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 54 of 167
EDI Standards: Criteria that define the data content and format requirements for specific business
transactions (e.g. purchase orders). Using standard formats allows companies to exchange
transactions with multiple trading partners easily. Also see: American National Standards Institute,
GS1 Group
EDI Transmission: A functional group of one or more EDI transactions that are sent to the same
location, in the same transmission, and are identified by a functional group header and trailer.
Efficient Consumer Response (ECR): A demand driven replenishment system designed to link all
parties in the logistics channel to create a massive flow-through distribution network. Replenishment
is based upon consumer demand and point of sale information.
EFT: See Electronic Funds Transfer
EH&S: See Environmental Health and Safety
EIN: See Exporter Identification Number
Electronic Commerce (EC): Also written as e-commerce. Conducting business electronically via
traditional EDI technologies, or online via the Internet. In the traditional sense of selling goods, it is
possible to do this electronically because of certain software programs that run the main functions of
an e-commerce website, such as product display, online ordering, and inventory management. The
definition of e-commerce includes business activity that is business-to-business (B2B), business-toconsumer
(B2C).
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI): Intercompany, computer-to-computer transmission of business
information in a standard format. For EDI purists, "computer-to-computer" means direct transmission
from the originating application program to the receiving, or processing, application program. An EDI
transmission consists only of business data, not any accompanying verbiage or free-form messages.
Purists might also contend that a standard format is one that is approved by a national or international
standards organization, as opposed to formats developed by industry groups or companies.
Electronic Data Interchange Association: A national body that propagates and controls the use of
EDI in a given country. All EDIAs are nonprofit organizations dedicated to encouraging EDI growth.
The EDIA in the United States was formerly TDCC and administered the development of standards in
transportation and other industries.
Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT): A computerized system that processes financial transactions and
information about these transactions or performs the exchange of value. Sending payment
instructions across a computer network, or the company-to-company, company-to-bank, or bank-tobank
electronic exchange of value.
Electronic Mail (E-Mail): The computer-to-computer exchange of messages. E-mail is usually
unstructured (free-form) rather than in a structured format. X.400 has become the standard for email
exchange.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 55 of 167
Electronic Product Code (EPC or ePC): An electronically coded tag that is intended as an
improvement to the UPC bar code system. The EPC is a 96-bit tag which contains a number called the
Global Trade Identification Number (GTIN). Unlike a UPC number, which only provides information
specific to a group of products, the GTIN gives each product its own specific identifying number, giving
greater accuracy in tracking. EPC standards are managed by the Global Standards organization known
as GS1.
Electronic Signature: A form of authentication that provides identification and validation of a
transaction by means of an authorization code identifying the individual or organization.
Elkins Act: An amendment to the IC Act that prohibits giving rebates.
E-mail: See Electronic Mail
Embargo: A prohibition upon exports or imports, either with specific products or specific countries.
Empirical: Pertaining to a statement or formula based upon experience or observation rather than on
deduction or theory.
Empowerment: A condition whereby employees have the authority to make decisions and take
action in their work areas without prior approval. For example, an operator can stop a production
process if he or she detects a problem, or a customer service representative can send out a
replacement product if a customer calls with a problem.
Encryption: The transformation of readable text into coded text for security purposes.
End item: A product sold as a completed item or repair part; any item subject to a customer order or
sales forecast. Synonym: Finished Goods Inventory.
End-of-Life: Planning and execution at the end of the life of a product. The challenge is making just
the right amount to avoid A) ending up with excess, which have to be sold at great discounts or
scrapped or B) ending up with shortages before the next generation is available.
End-of-Life Inventory: Inventory on hand that will satisfy future demand for products that are no
longer in production at your entity.
Engineering Change: A revision to a drawing or design released by engineering to modify or correct
a part. The request for the change can be from a customer or from production, quality control,
another department, or a supplier. Synonym: Engineering Change Order
Engineering Change Order (ECO): A documented and approved revision to a product or process
specification.
Engineer-to-Order: A process in which the manufacturing organization must first prepare (engineer)
significant product or process documentation before manufacture may begin.
Enroute: A term used for goods in transit or on the way to a destination.
Enterprise Application Integration (EAI): A computer term for the tools and techniques used in
linking ERP and other enterprise systems together. Linking systems is key for e-business. Gartner say
'firms implementing enterprise applications spend at least 30% on point-to-point interfaces'.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 56 of 167
Enterprise-Wide ABM: A management information system that uses activity-based information to
facilitate decision making across an organization.
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) System: A class of software for planning and managing
“enterprise-wide” the resources needed to take customer orders, ship them, account for them and
replenish all needed goods according to customer orders and forecasts. Often includes electronic
commerce with suppliers. Examples of ERP systems are the application suites from SAP, Oracle,
PeopleSoft and others.
Enveloping: An EDI management software function that groups all documents of the same type, or
functional group, and bound for the same destination into an electronic envelope. Enveloping is useful
where there are multiple documents such as orders or invoices issued to a single trading partner that
need to be sent as a packet.
Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S): The category of processes, procedures and regulations
related to addressing the needs of maintaining environmental quality standards for health and safety.
Includes the RoHS (Restriction of Hazardous Substances) and WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic)
standards.
Environmentally Sensitive Engineering: Designing features in a product and its packaging that
improve recycling, etc. It can include elimination of compounds that are hazardous to the
environment.
E&O: See Excess and Obsolescence
EOL: See End-of-Life
EOQ: See Economic Order Quantity
EPC or ePC: See: Electronic Product Code
EPS: A computer term. Encapsulated Postscript. An extension of the PostScript graphics file format
developed by Adobe Systems. EPS lets PostScript graphics files be incorporated into other documents.
Equipment: The rolling stock carriers use to facilitate the transportation services that they provide,
including containers, trucks, chassis, vessels, and airplanes, among others.
Equipment I.D.: An identifier assigned by the carrier to a piece of equipment. See also Container ID
Equipment Positioning: The process of placing equipment at a selected location.
Ergonomic: The science of creating workspaces and products which are human friendly to use.
ERP: See Enterprise Resources Planning System
ERS: See Evaluated Receipts Settlement
ESI: See Early Supplier Involvement
ETA: The Estimated Time of Arrival
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS

برچسب ها: SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS TERMS and GLOSSARY Updated October 2006 Definitions compiled by: Kate Vitasek Supply Chain Visions www.scvisions.com Bellevue، Washington Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions، nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted. Page 48 of 167 Disaster Recovery Planning: Contingency planning specifically related to recovering hardware and software (e.g. data centers، application software، operations، personnel، telecommunications) in information system outages. Discontinuous Demand: A demand pattern that is characterized by large demands interrupted by periods with no demand،  

تاریخ : شنبه 13 دی 1393 | 09:17 ب.ظ | نویسنده : sinister | نظرات

لغات و اصطلاحات زنجیره تامین و تدارکات




SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 40 of 167
Customer Profitability: The practice of placing a value on the profit generated by business done
with a particular customer.
Customer Receipt of Order to Installation Complete: Average lead-time from receipt of goods at
the customer to the time when installation (if applicable) is complete, including the following subelements:
time to get product up and running, and product acceptance by customer. (An element of
Order Fulfillment Lead Time)
Note: Determined separately for Make-to-Order, Configure/Package-to-Order,
Engineer-to-Order, and Make-to-Stock products.
Customer Relationship Management (CRM): This refers to information systems that help sales
and marketing functions, as opposed to the ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning), which is for back-end
integration.
Customer Segmentation: Dividing customers into groups based on specific criteria, such as products
purchased, customer geographic location, etc.
Customer Service: Activities between the buyer and seller that enhance or facilitate the sale or use
of the seller’s products or services.
Customer Service Ratio: See Percent of Fill
Customer Service Representative (CSR): The individual who provides customer support via
telephone in a call center environment.
Customer Signature/Authorization to Order Receipt: Average lead-time from when a customer
authorizes an order to the time that that order is received and order entry can commence. (An
element of Order Fulfillment Lead Time)
Note: Determined separately for Make-to-Order, Configure/Package-to-Order,
Engineer-to-Order, and Make-to-Stock products.
Customer-Supplier Partnership: A long-term relationship between a buyer and a supplier
characterized by teamwork and mutual confidence. The supplier is considered an extension of the
buyer’s organization. The partnership is based on several commitments. The buyer provides long-term
contracts and uses fewer suppliers. The supplier implements quality assurance processes so that
incoming inspection can be minimized. The supplier also helps the buyer reduce costs and improve
product and process designs.
Customization: Creating a product from existing components into an individual order. Synonym:
Build to Order.
Customs and Border Protection, U.S. (CBP): Formed during the creation of the Department of
Homeland Security in 2003, CBP consists primarily of the customs inspection function formerly
performed by the U.S. Customs Service as part of the Department of Treasury, the immigration
inspection function formerly performed by the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), and the
Border Patrol, formerly part of the Department of Justice.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 41 of 167
Customs House Broker: A business firm that oversees the movement of international shipments
through customs and ensures that the documentation accompanying a shipment is complete and
accurate.
Customs-Trade Partnership against Terrorism (C-TPAT): A joint government/business initiative
to build cooperative relationships that strengthen overall supply chain and border security. The
voluntary program is designed to share information that will protect against terrorists' compromising
the supply chain.
CWT: See Hundredweight
Cycle Counting: An inventory accuracy audit technique where inventory is counted on a cyclic
schedule rather than once a year. A cycle inventory count is usually taken on a regular, defined basis
(often more frequently for high-value or fast-moving items and less frequently for low-value or slowmoving
items). Most effective cycle counting systems require the counting of a certain number of
items every workday with each item counted at a prescribed frequency. The key purpose of cycle
counting is to identify items in error, thus triggering research, identification, and elimination of the
cause of the errors.
Cycle Inventory: An inventory system where counts are performed continuously, often eliminating
the need for an annual overall inventory. It is usually set up so that A items are counted regularly
(i.e., every month), B items are counted semi-regularly (every quarter or six months), and C items
are counted perhaps only once a year.
Cycle Time: The amount of time it takes to complete a business process.
Cycle Time to Process Excess Product Returns for Resale: The total time to process goods
returned as Excess by customer or distribution centers, in preparation for resale. This cycle time
includes the time a Return Product Authorization (RPA) is created to the time the RPA is approved,
from Product Available for Pick-up to Product Received and from Product Receipt to Product Available
for use.
Cycle Time to Process Obsolete and End-of-Life Product Returns for Disposal: The total time
to process goods returned as Obsolete & End of Life to actual Disposal. This cycle time includes the
time a Return Product Authorization (RPA) is created to the time the RPA is approved, from Product
Available for Pick-up to Product Received and from Product Receipt to Product Disposal/Recycle.
Cycle Time to Repair or Refurbish Returns for Use: The total time to process goods returned for
repair or refurbishing. This cycle time includes the time a Return Product Authorization (RPA) is
created to the time the RPA is approved, from Product Available for Pick-up to Product Received, from
Product Receipt to Product Repair/Refurbish begin, and from Product Repair/Refurbish begin to
Product Available for use.
Cyclical Demand: A situation where demand patterns for a product run in cycles driven by
seasonality or other predictable factors.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 42 of 167
D
Dangerous Goods: Articles or substances capable of posing significant health, safety, or
environmental risk, and that ordinarily require special attention including packaging and labeling when
stored or transported. Also referred to as Hazardous Goods or Hazardous Materials (HazMat).
Dashboard: A performance measurement tool used to capture a summary of the Key Performance
Indicators (KPIs)/metrics of a company. Metrics dashboards/scorecards should be easy to read and
usually have “red, yellow, green” indicators to flag when the company is not meeting its metrics
targets. Ideally, a dashboard/scorecard should be cross-functional in nature and include both financial
and non-financial measures. In addition, scorecards should be reviewed regularly – at least on a
monthly basis and weekly in key functions such as manufacturing and distribution where activities are
critical to the success of a company. The dashboard/scorecards philosophy can also be applied to
external supply chain partners such as suppliers to ensure that supplier’s objectives and practices
align. Synonym: Scorecard
Data Communications: The electronic transmission of data, usually in computer readable form,
using a variety of transmission vehicles and paths.
Data Dictionary: Lists the data elements for which standards exist. The Joint Electronic Document
Interchange (JEDI) committee developed a data dictionary that is employed by many EDI users.
Data Interchange Standards Association (DISA): The secretariat, which provides clerical and
administrative support to the ASC X12 Committee.
Data Mining: The process of studying data to search for previously unknown relationships. This
knowledge is then applied to achieving specific business goals.
Data Warehouse: A repository of data that has been specially prepared to support decision-making
applications. Synonym: Decision-Support Data
Database: Data stored in computer-readable form, usually indexed or sorted in a logical order by
which users can find a particular item of data they need.
Date Code: A label on products with the date of production. In food industries, it is often an integral
part of the lot number.
Days of Supply: Measure of quantity of inventory-on-hand, in relation to number of days for which
usage which will be covered. For example, if a component is consumed in manufacturing at the rate of
100 per day, and there are 1,585 units available on-hand, this represents 15.85 days supply.
Days Sales Outstanding (DSO): Measurement of the average collection period (time from invoicing
to cash receipt).
Calculation:
[5 Point Annual Gross Accounts Receivables] / [Total Annual Sales / 365]
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 43 of 167
DBR: See Drum-Buffer-Rope
DC: See Distribution Center
DD: See Direct Debit
DDSN: See Demand-Driven Supply Network
Dead on Arrival (DOA): A term used to describe products which are not functional when delivered.
Synonym: Defective.
Deadhead: The return of an empty transportation container to its point of origin. See: backhauling.
Deadweight: The total lifting capacity of a ship expressed in tons of 2240 lbs. It is the difference
between the displacement light (without cargo, passengers, fuel, etc.) and the displacement loaded.
Decentralized Authority: A situation in which management decision-making authority is given to
managers at many levels in the organizational hierarchy.
Decision Support System (DSS): Software that speeds access and simplifies data analysis, queries,
etc. within a database management system.
Declaration of Dangerous Goods: To comply with the U.S. regulations, exporters are required to
provide special notices to inland and ocean transport companies when goods are hazardous.
Declared Value: The value of the goods, declared by the shipper on a bill of lading, for the purpose
of determining a freight rate or the limit of the carrier's liability. Also used by customs as the basis for
calculation of duties, etc.
Decomposition: A method of forecasting where time series data are separated into up to three
components: trend, seasonal, and cyclical; where trend includes the general horizontal upward or
downward movement over time; seasonal includes a recurring demand pattern such as day of the
week, weekly, monthly, or quarterly; and cyclical includes any repeating, non-seasonal pattern. A
fourth component is random, that is, data with no pattern. The new forecast is made by projecting the
patterns individually determined and then combining them.
Dedicated Contract Carriage: A third-party service that dedicates equipment (vehicles) and drivers
to a single customer for its exclusive use on a contractual basis.
Defective goods inventory (DGI): Those items that have been returned, have been delivered
damaged and have a freight claim outstanding, or have been damaged in some way during warehouse
handling.
Delimiters: 1) ASCII, characters which are used to separate data elements within a data stream. 2)
EDI, two levels of separators and a terminator that are integrals part of a transferred data stream.
Delimiters are specified in the interchange header. From highest to lowest level, the separators and
terminator are segment terminator, data element separator, and component element separator (used
only in EDIFACT).
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 44 of 167
Delivery-Duty-Paid: Supplier/manufacturer arrangement in which suppliers are responsible for the
transport of the goods they have produced, which is being sent to a manufacturer. This responsibility
includes tasks such as ensuring products get through Customs.
Delivery Appointment: The time agreed upon between two enterprises for goods or transportation
equipment to arrive at a selected location. Typically used to help plan warehouse and receiving /
inspection operations and to manage backup of carriers at loading docks.
Delivery Performance to Commit Date: The percentage of orders that are fulfilled on or before the
internal Commit date, used as a measure of internal scheduling systems effectiveness. Delivery
measurements are based on the date a complete order is shipped or the ship-to date of a complete
order. A complete order has all items on the order delivered in the quantities requested. An order
must be complete to be considered fulfilled. Multiple line items on a single order with different planned
delivery dates constitute multiple orders, and multiple planned delivery dates on a single line item also
constitute multiple orders.
Calculation:
[Total number of orders delivered in full and on time to the scheduled commit date] / [Total
number of orders delivered]
Delivery Performance to Request Date: The percentage of orders that are fulfilled on or before the
customer's requested date used as a measure of responsiveness to market demand. Delivery
measurements are based on the date a complete order is shipped or the ship-to date of a complete
order. A complete order has all items on the order delivered in the quantities requested. An order
must be complete to be considered fulfilled. Multiple line items on a single order with different planned
delivery dates constitute multiple orders, and multiple planned delivery dates on a single line item also
constitute multiple orders.
Calculation:
[Total number of orders delivered in full and on time to the customer's request date] / [Total
number of orders delivered]
Delphi Method: A qualitative forecasting technique where the opinions of experts are combined in a
series of iterations. The results of each iteration are used to develop the next, so that convergence of
the experts’ opinions is obtained.
Delta Nu Alpha: A professional association of transportation and traffic practitioners.
Demand Chain: Another name for the supply chain, with emphasis on customer or end-user demand
pulling materials and product through the chain.
Demand Chain Management: Same as supply chain management, but with emphasis on consumer
pull versus supplier push.
Demand-Driven Supply Network (DDSN): A system of technologies and processes that sense and
react to real-time demand across a network of customers, suppliers and employees. In other words, a
consumer purchase triggers real-time information movement throughout the supply network, which
then initiates movement of product through the network.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 45 of 167
Demand Management: The proactive compilation of requirements information regarding demand
(i.e., customers, sales, marketing, finance) and the firm's capabilities from the supply side (i.e.,
supply, operations and logistics management); the development of a consensus regarding the ability
to match the requirements and capabilities; and the agreement upon a synthesized plan that can most
effectively meet the customer requirements within the constraints imposed by supply chain
capabilities.
Demand Planning: The process of identifying, aggregating, and prioritizing, all sources of demand
for the integrated supply chain of a product or service at the appropriate level, horizon and interval.
The sales forecast is comprised of the following concepts:
1. The sales forecasting level is the focal point in the corporate hierarchy where the forecast is
needed at the most generic level, i.e. Corporate forecast, Divisional forecast, Product Line
forecast, SKU, SKU by Location.
2. The sales forecasting time horizon generally coincides with the time frame of the plan for which
it was developed, i.e. Annual, 1-5 years, 1- 6 months, Daily, Weekly, Monthly.
3. The sales forecasting time interval generally coincides with how often the plan is updated, i.e.
Daily, Weekly, Monthly, and Quarterly.
Demand Planning Systems: The systems that assist in the process of identifying, aggregating, and
prioritizing, all sources of demand for the integrated supply chain of a product or service at the
appropriate level, horizon and interval.
Demand Pull: The triggering of material movement to a work center only when that work center is
ready to begin the next job. It in effect eliminates the queue from in front of a work center, but it can
cause a queue at the end of a previous work center.
Demand-Side Analysis: Techniques such as market research, surveys, focus groups, and
Performance / cost modeling used to identify emerging technologies.
Demand Signal: A signal from a consumer, customer or using operation that triggers the issue of
product or raw material. The demand signal is most efficiently an electronic data transmission, but
could be a physical document, kanban or telephone call.
Demand Supply Balancing: The process of identifying and measuring the gaps and imbalances
between demand and resources in order to determine how to best resolve the variances through
marketing, pricing, packaging, warehousing, outsource plans or some other action that will optimize
service, flexibility, costs, assets (or other supply chain inconsistencies) in an iterative and
collaborative environment.
Demand Time Fence (DTF): 1) That point in time inside of which the forecast is no longer included
in total demand and projected available inventory calculations; inside this point, only customer orders
are considered. Beyond this point, total demand is a combination of actual orders and forecasts,
depending on the forecast consumption technique chosen. 2) In some contexts, the demand time
fence may correspond to that point in the future inside which changes to the master schedule must be
approved by an authority higher than the master scheduler. Note, however, that customer orders
may still be promised inside the demand time fence without higher authority approval if there are
quantities available-to-promise (ATP). Beyond the demand time fence, the master scheduler may
change the MPS within the limits of established rescheduling rules, without the approval of higher
authority. See: planning time fence, time fence.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 46 of 167
De-Manufacturing: Refers to the process of going in and taking back assets and harvesting the
components and parts. After the components are tested, they may be sold into the secondary market
or may be upgraded to "as new" and used in production again.
Deming Circle: The concept of a continuously rotating wheel of plan-do-check-action (PDCA) used to
show the need for interaction among market research, design, production, and sales to improve
quality. Also see: Plan-Do-Check-Action
Demographic Segmentation: In marketing, dividing potential markets by characteristics of potential
customers, such as age, sex, income, and education.
Demurrage: The carrier charges and fees applied when rail freight cars and ships are retained
beyond a specified loading or unloading time. Also see: Detention, Express
Denied Party List (DPL): A list of organizations that are unauthorized to submit a bid for an activity
or to receive a specific product. For example, some countries have bans for certain products such as
weapons or sensitive technology.
Density: A physical characteristic of a commodity measuring its mass per unit volume or pounds per
cubic foot; an important factor in rate making, since density affects the utilization of a carrier’s
vehicle.
Density Rate: A rate based upon the density and shipment weight.
Deregulation: Revisions or complete elimination of economic regulations controlling transportation.
The Motor Carrier Act of 1980 and the Staggers Act of 1980 revised the economic controls over motor
carriers and railroads, and the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 eliminated economic controls over air
carriers.
Derived Demand: Demand for component products that arises from the demand for final design
products. For example, the demand for steel is derived from the demand for automobiles.
Design For Manufacture / Assembly (DFMA): A product design methodology that provides a
quantitative evaluation of product designs.
Design of Experiments (DoE): A branch of applied statistics dealing with planning, conducting,
analyzing, and interpreting controlled tests to evaluate the factors that control the value of a
parameter or group of parameters.
Destination-Enhanced Consolidation: Ganging of smaller shipments to cut cost, often as directed
by a system or via pooling with a third party.
Detention: The carrier charges and fees applied when rail freight cars and ships are retained beyond
a specified loading or unloading time. Also see: Demurrage, Express
Deterministic Models: Models where no uncertainty is included, e.g., inventory models without
safety stock considerations.
DFMA: See Design for Manufacture/ Assembly
DFZ: See Duty Free Zone
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 47 of 167
DGI: See Defective Goods Inventory
Dial Up: Access a network by dialing a phone number or initiating a computer to dial the number. The
dial-up line connects to the network access point via a node or a PAD.
Differential: A discount offered by a carrier that faces a service time disadvantage over a route.
Digital Signature: Electronically generated, digitized (as opposed to graphically created)
authorization that is uniquely linkable and traceable to an empowered officer.
Direct Channel: Your own sales force sells to the customer. Your entity may ship to the customer, or
a third party may handle shipment, but in either case your entity owns the sales contract and retains
rights to the receivable from the customer. Your end customer may be a retail outlet. The movement
to the customer may be direct from the factory, or the product may move through a distribution
network owned by your company. Order information in this channel may be transmitted by electronic
means.
Direct Cost: A cost that can be directly traced to a cost object since a direct or repeatable cause-andeffect
relationship exists. A direct cost uses a direct assignment or cost causal relationship to transfer
costs. Also see: Indirect Cost, Tracing
Direct Debit (DD): A method of ACH collection used where the debtor gives authorization to debit his
or her account upon the receipt of an entry issued by a creditor. See also automated clearinghouse
Direct Product Profitability (DPP): Calculation of the net profit contribution attributable to a
specific product or product line.
Direct Production Material: Material that is used in the manufacturing/content of a product
(example: Purchased parts, solder, SMT glues, adhesives, mechanical parts etc. Bill-of-Materials
parts, etc.)
Direct Retail Locations: A retail location that purchases products directly from your organization or
responding entity.
Direct Store Delivery (DSD): Process of shipping direct from a manufacturer’s plant or distribution
center to the customer’s retail store, thus bypassing the customer’s distribution center. Also called
Direct-to-Store Delivery
Direct Transmission: A transmission whereby data is exchanged directly between sender and
receiver computers, without an intervening third-party service. Also called a point-to-point
transmission
Direct-to-Store (DTS) Delivery: Same as Direct Store Delivery.
Directed tasks: Tasks that can be completed based upon detailed information provided by the
computer system. An order picking task where the computer details the specific item, location, and
quantity to pick is an example of a directed task. If the computer could not specify the location and
quantity forcing the worker to choose locations or change quantities, it would not

برچسب ها: SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS TERMS and GLOSSARY Updated October 2006 Definitions compiled by: Kate Vitasek Supply Chain Visions www.scvisions.com Bellevue، Washington Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions، nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted. Page 40 of 167 Customer Profitability: The practice of placing a value on the profit generated by business done with a particular customer. Customer Receipt of Order to Installation Complete: Average lead-time from receipt of goods at the customer to the time when installation (if applicable) is complete، including the following subelements: time to get product up and running، and product acceptance by customer. (An element of Order Fulfillment Lead Time) Note: Determined separately for Make-to-Order، Configure/Package-to-Order، Engineer-to-Order،  

تاریخ : شنبه 13 دی 1393 | 09:15 ب.ظ | نویسنده : sinister | نظرات

لغات و اصطلاحات زنجیره تامین و تدارکات




SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 32 of 167
Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM): Computerized systems in which manufacturing
instructions are downloaded to automated equipment or to operator workstations.
Computer-Aided Process Planning (CAPP): Software-based systems that aid manufacturing
engineers in creating a process plan to manufacture a product who’s geometric, electronic, and other
characteristics have been captured in a CAD database. CAPP systems address such manufacturing
criteria as target costs, target lead times, anticipated production volumes, availability of
Computer-Based Training (CBT): Training that is delivered via computer workstation and includes
all training and testing materials.
Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM): A variety of approaches in which computer systems
communicate or interoperate over a local-area network. Typically, CIM systems link management
functions with engineering, manufacturing, and support operations. In the factory, CIM systems may
control the sequencing of production operations, control operation of automated equipment and
conveyor systems, transmit manufacturing instructions, capture data at various stages of the
manufacturing or assembly process, facilitate tracking and analysis of test results and operating
parameters, or a combination of these.
Computerized Maintenance Management Systems (CMMS): Software-based systems that
analyze operating conditions of production equipment -- vibration, oil analysis, heat, etc. -- and
equipment-failure data, and apply that data to the scheduling of maintenance and repair inventory
orders and routine maintenance functions. A CMMS prevents unscheduled machine downtime and
optimizes a plant's ability to process product at optimum volumes and quality levels.
Computerized Process Simulation: Use of computer simulation to facilitate sequencing of
production operations, analysis of production flows, and layout of manufacturing facilities.
Computerized SPC: See Statistical process control
Concurrent Engineering: A cross-functional, team-based approach in which the product and the
manufacturing process are designed and configured within the same time frame, rather than
sequentially. Ease and cost of manufacturability, as well as customer needs, quality issues, and
product-life-cycle costs are taken into account earlier in the development cycle. Fully configured
concurrent engineering teams include representation from marketing, design engineering,
manufacturing engineering, and purchasing, as well as supplier––and even customer––companies.
Configuration: The arrangement of components as specified to produce an assembly.
Configure/Package-to-Order: A process where the trigger to begin manufacture, final assembly or
packaging of a product is an actual customer order or release, rather than a market forecast. In order
to be considered a Configure-to-Order environment, less than 20% of the value-added takes place
after the receipt of the order or release, and virtually all necessary design and process documentation
is available at time of order receipt.
Confirmation: With regards to EDI, a formal notice (by message or code) from a electronic mailbox
system or EDI server indicating that a message sent to a trading partner has reached its intended
mailbox or been retrieved by the addressee.
Confirming Order: A purchase order issued to a supplier, listing the goods or services and terms of
an order placed orally or otherwise before the usual purchase document.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 33 of 167
Conformance: An affirmative indication or judgment that a product or service has met the
requirements of a relevant specification, contract, or regulation. Synonym: Compliance
Conrail: The Consolidated Rail Corporation established by the Regional Reorganization Act of 1973 to
operate the bankrupt Penn Central Railroad and other bankrupt railroads in the Northeast; funding
was provided by the 4-R Act of 1976.
Consensus: A state in which all the members of a group support an action or decision, even if some
of them don't fully agree with it.
Consignee: The party to whom goods are shipped and delivered. The receiver of a freight shipment.
Consignment: 1) A shipment that is handled by a common carrier. 2) The process of a supplier
placing goods at a customer location without receiving payment until after the goods are used or sold.
Also see: Consignment Inventory
Consignment Inventory: 1) Goods or product that are paid for when they are sold by the reseller,
not at the time they are shipped to the reseller. 2) Goods or products which are owned by the vendor
until they are sold to the consumer.
Consignor: The party who originates a shipment of goods (shipper). The sender of a freight
shipment, usually the seller.
Consolidation: Combining two or more shipments in order to realize lower transportation rates.
Inbound consolidation from vendors is called make-bulk consolidation; outbound consolidation to
customers is called break-bulk consolidation.
Consolidator: An enterprise that provides services to group shipments, orders, and/or goods to
facilitate movement.
Consortium: A group of companies that work together to jointly produce a product, service, or
project.
Constraint: A bottleneck, obstacle or planned control that limits throughput or the utilization of
capacity.
Consul: A government official residing in a foreign country, charged with representing the interests of
his or her country and its nationals.
Consular Declaration: A formal statement made to the consul of a country describing merchandise
to be shipped to that consul's country. Approval must be obtained prior to shipment.
Consular Documents: Special forms signed by the consul of a country to which cargo is destined.
Consular Invoice: A document, required by some foreign countries, describing a shipment of goods
and showing information such as the consignor, consignee, and value of the shipment. Certified by a
consular official of the foreign country, it is used by the country's custom.
Consumer-Centric Database: Database with information about a retailer’s individual consumers,
used primarily for marketing and promotion.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 34 of 167
Consumer Packaged Goods (CPG): Consumable goods such as food and beverages, footwear and
apparel, tobacco, and cleaning products. In general, CPGs are things that get used up and have to be
replaced frequently, in contrast to items that people usually keep for a long time, such as cars and
furniture.
Consuming the Forecast: The process of reducing the forecast by customer orders or other types of
actual demands as they are received. The adjustments yield the value of the remaining forecast for
each period.
Consumption Entry: An official Customs form used for declaration of reported goods, also showing
the total duty due on such transaction.
Contactless: Refers to the practice of using RFID, Smart Card or other forms of Near Field
Communications technology to gather data electronically without the need to actually make contact
physically with the item.
Container: 1) A “box,” typically 10 to 40 feet long, which is primarily used for ocean freight
shipments. For travel to and from ports, containers are loaded onto truck chassis or on railroad
flatcars. 2) The packaging, such as a carton, case, box, bucket, drum, bin, bottle, bundle, or bag, that
an item is packed and shipped in.
Container Security Initiative (CSI): U.S. Customs program to prevent global containerized cargo
from being exploited by terrorists. Designed to enhance security of sea cargo container.
Containerization: A shipment method in which commodities are placed in containers, and after initial
loading, the commodities per se are not re-handled in shipment until they are unloaded at the
destination.
Contingency Planning: Preparing to deal with calamities (e.g., floods) and non-calamitous situations
(e.g., strikes) before they occur
Continuous Flow Distribution (CFD): The streamlined pull of products in response to customer
requirements while minimizing the total costs of distribution.
Continuous-Flow, Fixed-Path Equipment: Materials handling devices that include conveyors and
drag lines.
Continuous Improvement (CI): A structured measurement driven process that continually reviews
and improves performance.
Continuous Process Improvement (CPI): A never-ending effort to expose and eliminate root
causes of problems; small-step improvement as opposed to big-step improvement. Synonym:
Continuous Improvement. Also see: Kaizen
Continuous Replenishment: Continuous Replenishment is the practice of partnering between
distribution channel members that changes the traditional replenishment process from distributorgenerated
purchase orders, based on economic order quantities, to the replenishment of products
based on actual and forecasted product demand.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 35 of 167
Continuous Replenishment Planning (CRP): A program that triggers the manufacturing and
movement of product through the supply chain when the identical product is purchased by an end
user.
Contract: An agreement between two or more competent persons or companies to perform or not to
perform specific acts or services or to deliver merchandise. A contract may be oral or written. A
purchase order, when accepted by a supplier, becomes a contract. Acceptance may be in writing or
by performance, unless the purchase order requires acceptance in writing.
Contract Administration: Managing all aspects of a contract to guarantee that the contractor fulfills
his obligations.
Contract Carrier: A carrier that does not serve the general public, but provides transportation for
hire for one or a limited number of shippers under a specific contract.
Contribution: The difference between sales price and variable costs. Contribution is used to cover
fixed costs and profits.
Contribution Margin: An amount equal to the difference between sales revenue and variable costs.
Controlled Access: Referring to an area within a warehouse or yard that is fenced and gated. These
areas are typically used to store high-value items and may be monitored by security cameras
Conveyor: A materials handling device that moves freight from one area to another in a warehouse.
Roller conveyors make sue of gravity, whereas belt conveyors use motors.
Cookie: A computer term. A piece of information from your computer that references what the user
has clicked on, or references information that is stored in a text file on the user's hard drive (such as a
username). Another way to describe cookies is to say they are tiny files containing information about
individual computers that can be used by advertisers to track online interests and tastes. Cookies are
also used in the process of purchasing items on the Web. It is because of the cookie that the
"shopping cart" technology works. By saving in a text file, the name, and other important information
about an item a user "clicks" on as they move through a shopping Website, a user can later go to an
order form, and see all the items they selected, ready for quick and easy processing.
Cooperative Associations: Groups of firms or individuals having common interests: agricultural
cooperative associations may haul up to 25% of their total interstate tonnage in nonfarm, nonmenber
goods in movements incidental and necessary to their primary business.
Co-opetition: A combination of cooperation and competition that offers the counter intuitive
possibility for rivals to benefit from each other's seemingly competitive activities. In short, there are
circumstances where having more players to cut the pie means bigger pieces of pie for everyone. An
example would be found in the group buying setting where its use refers to the activity of multiple,
normally competitive buying group members leveraging each other’s buying power to gain reduced
pricing.
Coordinated Transportation: Two or more carriers of different modes transporting a shipment.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 36 of 167
Co-product: The term co-product is used to describe multiple items that are produced simultaneously
during a production run. Co-products are often used to increase yields in cutting operations such as
die cutting or sawing when it is found that scrap can be reduced by combining multiple-sized products
in a single production run. Co-products are also used to reduce the frequency of machine setups
required in these same types of operations. Co-products, also known as byproducts, are also common
in process manufacturing such as in chemical plants. Although the concept of co-products is fairly
simple, the programming logic required to provide for planning and processing of co-products is very
complicated.
Core Competency: Bundles of skills or knowledge sets that enable a firm to provide the greatest
level of value to its customers in a way that is difficult for competitors to emulate and that provides for
future growth. Core competencies are embodied in the skills of the workers and in the organization.
They are developed through -collective -learning, communication, and commitment to work across
levels and functions in the organization and with the customers and suppliers. For example, a core
competency could be the capability of a firm to coordinate and harmonize diverse production skills and
multiple technologies. To illustrate, advanced casting processes for making steel require the
integration of machine design with sophisticated sensors to track temperature and speed, and the
sensors require mathematical modeling of heat transfer. For rapid and effective development of such a
process, materials scientists must work closely with machine designers, software engineers, process
specialists, and operating personnel. Core competencies are not directly related to the product or
market.
Core Process: That unique capability that is central to a company’s competitive strategy.
Cost Accounting: The branch of accounting that is concerned with recording and reporting business
operating costs. It includes the reporting of costs by departments, activities, and products.
Cost Allocation: In accounting, the assignment of costs that cannot be directly related to production
activities via more measurable means, e.g., assigning corporate expenses to different products via
direct labor costs or hours.
Cost Center: In accounting, a sub-unit in an organization that is responsible for costs.
Cost Driver: In accounting, any situation or event that causes a change in the consumption of a
resource, or influences quality or cycle time. An activity may have multiple cost drivers. Cost drivers
do not necessarily need to be quantified; however, they strongly influence the selection and
magnitude of resource drivers and activity drivers.
Cost Driver Analysis: In cost accounting, the examination, quantification, and explanation of the
effects of cost drivers. The results are often used for continuous improvement programs to reduce
throughput times, improve quality, and reduce cost.
Cost Element: In cost accounting, the lowest level component of a resource, activity, or cost object.
Cost, Insurance, Freight (CIF): A freight term indicating that the seller is responsible for cost, the
marine insurance, and the freight charges on an ocean shipment of goods.
Cost Management: The management and control of activities and drivers to calculate accurate
product and service costs, improve business processes, eliminate waste, influence cost drivers, and
plan operations. The resulting information will have utility in setting and evaluating an organization’s
strategies.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 37 of 167
Cost of Capital: The cost to borrow or invest capital.
Cost of Goods Sold (COGS): The amount of direct materials, direct labor, and allocated overhead
associated with products sold during a given period of time, determined in accordance with Generally
Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP)
Cost of lost sales: The forgone profit associated with a stockout.
Cost Trade-off: The interrelationship among system variables indicates that a change in one variable
has cost impact upon other variables. A cost reduction in one variable may be at the expense of
increased cost for other variables, and vice versa.
Cost Variance: In cost accounting, the difference between what has been budgeted for an activity
and what it actually costs.
COTD: See Complete & On-Time Delivery
COTS: See Commercial Off-the-Shelf
Courier Service: A fast, door-to-door service for high-valued goods and documents; firms usually
limit service to shipments of 50 pounds or less.
Council of Logistics Management (CLM): See Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals.
Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP): The CSCMP is a not-for-profit
professional business organization consisting of individuals throughout the world who have interests
and/or responsibilities in logistics and supply chain management, and the related functions that make
up these professions. Its purpose is to enhance the development of the logistics and supply chain
management professions by providing these individuals with educational opportunities and relevant
information through a variety of programs, services, and activities.
CPFR: See Collaborative Planning Forecasting and Replenishment
CPG: See Consumer Packaged Goods
CPI: See Continuous Process Improvement
Credit Level: The amount of purchasing credit a customer has available. Usually defined by the
internal credit department and reduced by any existing unpaid bills or open orders.
Critical Differentiators: This is what makes an idea, product, service or business model unique.
Critical value analysis: A modified ABC analysis in which a subjective value of criticalness is
assigned to each item in the inventory.
Cross Docking: A distribution system in which merchandise received at the warehouse or distribution
center is not put away, but instead is readied for shipment to retail stores. Cross docking requires
close synchronization of all inbound and outbound shipment movements. By eliminating the put-away,
storage and selection operations, it can significantly reduce distribution costs.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 38 of 167
Cross Functional: A term used to describe a process or an activity that crosses the boundary
between functions. A cross functional team consists of individuals from more than one organizational
unit or function.
Cross Functional “Process” Metric: A number resulting from an equation, showing the output of a
process that spans departments. These types of measures are also known as a process measures
because they span across the breadth of a process, regardless for functional/departmental segregation
within the process. Example: Perfect Order Index
Cross Sell: The practice of attempting to sell additional products to a customer during a sales call. For
example, when the CSR presents a camera case and accessories to a customer that is ordering a
camera
Cross-Shipment: Material flow activity where materials are shipped to customers from a secondary
shipping point rather than from a preferred shipping point.
Cross-Subsidy: In cost accounting, the inequitable assignment of costs to cost objects, which leads
to over costing or under costing them relative to the amount of activities and resources actually
consumed. This may result in poor management decisions that are inconsistent with the economic
goals of the organization.
CRP: See Continuous Replenishment Program
Critical Success Factor (CSF): Those activities and/or processes that must be completed and/or
controlled to enable a company to reach its goals.
CRM: See Customer Relationship Management
CSCMP: See Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals
CSF: See Critical Success Factor
CSI: See Container Security Initiative
CSR: See Customer Service Representative
CTP: See Capacity to Promise
C-TPAT: See Customs-Trade Partnership against Terrorism
Cube: The volume of the shipment or package (the product of the length x width x depth).
Cubage: Cubic volume of space being used or available for shipping or storage.
Cube Utilization: In warehousing, a measurement of the utilization of the total storage capacity of a
vehicle or warehouse.
Cubic Space: In warehousing, a measurement of space available or required in transportation and
warehousing.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 39 of 167
Cumulative Available-to-Promise: A calculation based on the available-to-promise (ATP) figure in
the master schedule. Two methods of computing the cumulative available-to-promise are used, with
and without lookahead calculation. The cumulative with lookahead ATP equals the ATP from the
previous period plus the MPS of the period minus the backlog of the period minus the sum of the
differences between the backlogs and MPSs of all future periods until, but not to include, the period
where point production exceeds the backlogs. The cumulative without lookahead procedure equals the
ATP in the previous period plus the MPS, minus the backlog in the period being considered. Also see:
Available-to-Promise
Cumulative Lead Time: The total time required to source components, build and ship a product.
Cumulative Source/Make Cycle Time: The cumulative internal and external lead time to
manufacture shippable product, assuming that there is no inventory on-hand, no materials or parts on
order, and no prior forecasts existing with suppliers. (An element of Total Supply Chain Response
Time)
Calculation:
The critical path along the following elements: Total Sourcing Lead Time, Manufacturing Order
Release to Start Manufacturing, Total Manufacture Cycle Time (Make-to-Order, Engineer-to-Order,
Configure/Package-to-Order) or Manufacture Cycle Time (Make-to-Stock), Complete Manufacture
to Ship Time
Note: Determined separately for Make-to-Order, Configure/Package-to-Order,
Engineer-to-Order, and Make-to-Stock products
Currency Adjustment Factor (CAF): An added charge assessed by water carriers for currency value
changes.
Current Good Manufacturing Practices (CGMP): Regulations enforced by the U.S. Food and Drug
Administration for food and chemical manufacturers and packagers.
Customer: 1) In distribution, the Trading Partner or reseller, i.e. Wal-Mart, Safeway, or CVS. 2) In
Direct-to-Consumer, the end customer or user.
Customer Acquisition or Retention: The rate by which new customers are acquired, or existing
customers are retained. A key selling point to potential marquis partners. Also see: Marquis Partner
Customer Driven: The end user, or customer, motivates what is produced or how it is delivered.
Customer Facing: Those personnel whose jobs entail actual contact with the customer.
Customer Interaction Center: See Call Center
Customer Order: An order from a customer for a particular product or a number of products. It is
often referred to as an actual demand to distinguish it from a forecasted demand.
Customer/Order Fulfillment Process: A series of customers’ interactions with an organization
through the order

برچسب ها: SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS TERMS and GLOSSARY Updated October 2006 Definitions compiled by: Kate Vitasek Supply Chain Visions www.scvisions.com Bellevue، Washington Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions، nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted. Page 32 of 167 Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM): Computerized systems in which manufacturing instructions are downloaded to automated equipment or to operator workstations. Computer-Aided Process Planning (CAPP): Software-based systems that aid manufacturing engineers in creating a process plan to manufacture a product who’s geometric، electronic، and other characteristics have been captured in a CAD database. CAPP systems address such manufacturing criteria as target costs، target lead times، anticipated production volumes،  

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SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 26 of 167
Centralized Dispatching: The organization of the dispatching function into one central location. This
structure often involves the use of data collection devices for communication between the centralized
dispatching function, which usually reports to the production control department, and the shop
manufacturing departments.
Centralized Inventory Control: Inventory decision making (for all SKUs) exercised from one office
or department for an entire company.
Certificate of Analysis (COA): A certification of conformance to quality standards or specifications
for products or materials. It may include a list or reference of analysis results and process information.
It is often required for transfer of the custody/ownership/title of materials.
Certificate of Compliance: A supplier’s certification that the supplies or services in question meet
specified-requirements.
Certificate of origin: An international business document that certifies the country of origin of the
shipment.
Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity: The grant of operating authority that is given to
common carriers. A carrier must prove that a public need exists and that the carrier is fit, willing, and
able to provide the needed service. The certificate may specify the commodities to be hauled, the area
to be served, and the routes to be used.
Certified Supplier: A status awarded to a supplier who consistently meets predetermined quality,
cost, delivery, financial, and count objectives. Incoming inspection may not be required.
Certificated Carrier: A for-hire air carrier that is subject to economic regulation and requires an
operating certification to provide service.
CFD: See Continuous Flow Distribution
CGMP: See Current Good Manufacturing Practice
Chain of Customers: The sequence of customers who in turn consume the output of each other,
forming a chain. For example, individuals are customers of a department store, which in turn is the
customer of a producer, who is the customer of a material supplier.
Chain Reaction: A chain of events described by W. Edwards Deming: improve quality, decrease
costs, improve productivity, increase market with better quality and lower price, stay in business,
provide jobs and provide more jobs.
Challenge and Response: A method of user authentication. The user enters an ID and password
and, in return, is issued a challenge by the system. The system compares the user's response to the
challenge to a computed response. If the responses match, the user is allowed access to the system.
The system issues a different challenge each time. In effect, it requires a new password for each
logon.
Champion: A business leader or senior manager who ensures that resources are available for training
and projects, and who is involved in project tollgate reviews; also an executive who supports and
addresses Six Sigma organizational issues.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 27 of 167
Change agent: An individual from within or outside an organization who facilitates change within the
organization. May or may not be the initiator of the change effort.
Change Management: The business process that coordinates and monitors all changes to the
business processes and applications operated by the business as well as to their internal equipment,
resources, operating systems, and procedures. The change management discipline is carried out in a
way that minimizes the risk of problems that will affect the operating environment and service delivery
to the users.
Change Order: A formal notification that a purchase order or shop order must be modified in some
way. This change can result from a revised quantity, date, or specification by the customer; an
engineering change; a change in inventory requirement date; etc.
Changeover: Process of making necessary adjustments to change or switchover the type of products
produced on a manufacturing line. Changeovers usually lead to downtime and for the most part
companies try to minimize changeover time to help reduce costs.
Channel: 1) A method whereby a business dispenses its product, such as a retail or distribution
channel, call center or web based electronic storefront. 2) A push technology that allows users to
subscribe to a website to browse offline, automatically display updated pages on their screen savers,
and download or receive notifications when pages in the website are modified. Channels are available
only in browsers that support channel definitions, such as Microsoft Internet Explorer version 4.0 and
above.
Channel Conflict: This occurs when various sales channels within a company's supply chain compete
with each other for the same business. An example is where a retail channel is in competition with a
web based channel set up by the company.
Channel Partners: Members of a supply chain (i.e. suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, retailers,
etc.) who work in conjunction with one another to manufacture, distribute, and sell a specific product.
Channels of Distribution: Any series of firms or individuals that participates in the flow of goods and
services from the raw material supplier and producer to the final user or consumer. Also see:
Distribution Channel
Charging Area: A warehouse area where a company maintains battery chargers and extra batteries
to support a fleet of electrically powered materials handling equipment. The company must maintain
this area in accordance with government safety regulations.
Chock: A wedge, usually made of hard rubber or steel, that is firmly placed under the wheel of a
trailer, truck, or boxcar to stop it from rolling.
CI: See Continuous Improvement
CIF: See Cost, Insurance, Freight
City driver: A motor carrier driver who drives a local route as opposed to a long-distance, intercity
route.
Civil Aeronautics Board: A federal regulatory agency that implemented economic regulatory
controls over air carriers.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 28 of 167
CL: Carload rail service requiring shipper to meet minimum weight.
Claim: A charge made against a carrier for loss, damage, delay, or overcharge.
Class I Carrier: A classification of regulated carriers based upon annual operating revenues—motor
carriers of property: > or = $5 million; railroads: > or =$50 million; motor carriers of passengers: >
or =$3 million.
Class II Carrier: A classification of regulated carriers based upon annual operating revenues—motor
carriers of property: $1-$5 million; railroads: $10-$50 million; motor carriers of passengers: < or =
$3 million.
Class III Carrier: A classification of regulated carriers based upon annual operating revenues—motor
carriers of property: < or = $1 million; railroads: < or = $10 million.
Classification: An alphabetical listing \of commodities, the class or rating into which the commodity
is placed, and the minimum weight necessary for the rate discount; used in the class rate structure.
Classification yard: A railroad terminal area where rail cars are grouped together to form train units.
Class Rate: A rate constructed from a classification and a uniform distance system. A class rate is
available for any product between any two points.
Clearinghouse: A conventional or limited purpose entity generally restricted to providing specialized
services, such as clearing funds or settling accounts.
Click-and-Mortar: With reference to a traditional brick-and-mortar company that has expanded its
presence online. Many brick-and-mortar stores are now trying to establish an online presence but
often have a difficult time doing so for many reasons. Click-and-mortar is "the successful combination
of online and real world experience."
Clip Art: A collection of icons, buttons, and other useful image files, along with sound and video files
that can be inserted into documents/web pages.
Clipboard: A temporary storage area on a computer for cut or copied items.
CLCA: See Closed-loop corrective action
CLM: See Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals
Closed-Loop Corrective Action (CLCA): A sophisticated engineering system designed to document,
verify and diagnose failures, recommend and initiate corrective action, provide follow-up and maintain
comprehensive statistical records.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 29 of 167
Closed-Loop MRP: A system built around material requirements planning that includes the additional
planning processes of production planning (sales and operations planning), master production
scheduling, and capacity requirements planning. Once this planning phase is complete and the plans
have been accepted as realistic and attainable, the execution processes come into play. These
processes include the manufacturing control processes of input-output (capacity) measurement,
detailed scheduling and dispatching, as well as anticipated delay reports from both the plant and
suppliers, supplier scheduling, and so on. The term closed loop implies not only that each of these
processes is included in the overall system, but also that feedback is provided by the execution
processes so that the planning can be kept valid at all times.
CMI: See Co-Managed Inventory
CMM: See Capability Maturity Model
COA: See Certificate of Analysis
Coastal carriers: Water carriers that provide service along coasts serving ports on the Atlantic or
Pacific oceans or on the Gulf of Mexico
Co-destiny: The evolution of a supply chain from intra-organizational management to interorganizational
management.
Co-Packer: A contract co-packer produces goods and/or services for other companies, usually under
the other company's label or name. Co-Packers are more frequently seen in CPG and Foods.
Co-Managed Inventory (CMI): A form of continuous replenishment in which the manufacturer is
responsible for replenishment of standard merchandise, while the retailer manages the replenishment
of promotional merchandise.
Code: A numeric, or alphanumeric, representation of text for exchanging commonly used information.
For example: commodity codes, carrier codes,
Codifying: The process of detailing a new standard.
COGS: See Cost of Goods Sold
Collaboration: Joint work and communication among people and systems – including business
partners, suppliers, and customers – to achieve a common business goal.
Collaborative Planning, Forecasting and Replenishment (CPFR): 1) A collaboration process
whereby supply chain trading partners can jointly plan key supply chain activities from production and
delivery of raw materials to production and delivery of final products to end customers. Collaboration
encompasses business planning, sales forecasting, and all operations required to replenish raw
materials and finished goods. 2) A process philosophy for facilitating collaborative communications.
CPFR is considered a standard, endorsed by the Voluntary Inter-industry Commerce Standards.
Collect Freight: Freight payable to the carrier at the port of discharge or ultimate destination. The
consignee does not pay the freight charge if the cargo does not arrive at the destination.
Combined Lead Time: See Cumulative Lead Time
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 30 of 167
Commercial Invoice: A document created by the seller. It is an official document which is used to
indicate, among other things, the name and address of the buyer and seller, the product(s) being
shipped, and their value for customs, insurance, or other purposes.
Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS): A computer software industry term which describes software
which is offered for sale by commercial developers. This includes products from vendors such as SAP,
Oracle, Microsoft, etc. and all of the smaller vendors.
Commercial Zone: The area surrounding a city or town to which rates quoted for the city or town
also apply; the area is defined by the ICC.
Committee of American Steamship Lines: An industry association representing subsidized U.S.
Flag steamship firms.
Committed Capability: The portion of the production capability that is currently in use, or is
scheduled for use.
Commodities clause: A clause that prohibits railroads from hauling commodities that they produced,
mined, owned, or had an interest in.
Commodity: An item that is traded in commerce. The term usually implies an undifferentiated
product competing primarily on price and availability.
Commodity Buying: Grouping like parts or materials under one buyer’s control for the procurement
of all requirements to support production.
Commodity Code: A code describing a commodity or a group of commodities pertaining to goods
classification. This code can be carrier tariff or regulating in nature.
Commodity Procurement Strategy: The purchasing plan for a family of items. This would include
the plan to manage the supplier base and solve problems.
Commodity rate: A rate for a specific commodity and its origin-destination.
Common Carrier: Transportation available to the public that does not provide special treatment to
any one party and is regulated as to the rates charged, the liability assumed, and the service
provided. A common carrier must obtain a certificate of public convenience and necessity from the
Federal Trade Commission for interstate traffic.
Common Carrier Duties: Common carriers are required to serve, deliver, charge reasonable rates,
and not discriminate.
Common Cost: A cost that cannot be directly assignable to particular segments of the business but
that is incurred for the business as a whole.
Commuter: An exempt for-hire air carrier that publishes a time schedule on specific routes; a special
type of air taxi.
Communication Protocol: The method by which two computers coordinate their communications.
BISYNC and MNP are two examples.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 31 of 167
Company Culture: A system of values, beliefs, and behaviors inherent in a company. To optimize
business performance, top management must define and create the necessary culture.
Comparative Advantage: A principle based on the assumption that an area will specialize in the
production of goods for which it has the greatest advantage or least comparative disadvantage.
Competitive Advantage: Value created by a company for its customers that clearly distinguishes it
from the competition, and provides its customers a reason to remain loyal.
Competitive Benchmarking: Benchmarking a product or service against competitors. Also see:
Benchmarking
Competitive Bid: A price/service offering by a supplier that must compete with offerings from other
suppliers.
Complete & On-Time Delivery (COTD): A measure of customer service. All items on any given
order must be delivered on time for the order to be considered as complete and on time.
Complete Manufacture to Ship Time: Average time from when a unit is declared shippable by
manufacturing until the unit actually ships to a customer.
Compliance: Meaning that products, services, processes and/or documents comply with
requirements.
Compliance Checking: The function of EDI processing software that ensures that all transmissions
contain the mandatory information demanded by the EDI standard. Compares information sent by an
EDI user against EDI standards and reports exceptions. Does not ensure that documents are complete
and fully accurate, but does reject transmissions with missing data elements or syntax errors.
Compliance Monitoring: A check done by the VAN/third party network or the translation software to
ensure the data being exchanged is in the correct format for the standard being used.
Compliance Program: A method by which two or more EDI trading partners periodically report
conformity to agreed upon standards of control and audit. Management produces statements of
compliance, which briefly note any exceptions, as well as corrective action planned or taken, in
accordance with operating rules. Auditors produce an independent and objective statement of opinion
on management statements.
Component: Material that will contribute to a finished product but is not the finished product itself.
Examples would include tires for an automobile, power supply for a personal computer, or a zipper for
a ski parka. Note that what is a component to the manufacturer may be considered the finished
product of their supplier.
Computer-Aided Design (CAD)—Computer-based systems for product design that may incorporate
analytical and “what if” capabilities to optimize product designs. Many CAD systems capture geometric
and other product characteristics for engineering-data-management systems, producibility and cost
analysis, and performance analysis. In many cases, CAD-generated data.
Computer Aided Engineering (CAE): The use of computers to model design

برچسب ها: SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS TERMS and GLOSSARY Updated October 2006 Definitions compiled by: Kate Vitasek Supply Chain Visions www.scvisions.com Bellevue، Washington Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions، nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted. Page 26 of 167 Centralized Dispatching: The organization of the dispatching function into one central location. This structure often involves the use of data collection devices for communication between the centralized dispatching function، which usually reports to the production control department، and the shop manufacturing departments. Centralized Inventory Control: Inventory decision making (for all SKUs) exercised from one office or department for an entire company. Certificate of Analysis (COA): A certification of conformance to quality standards or specifications for products or materials. It may include a list or reference of analysis results and process information. It is often required for transfer of the custody/ownership/title of materials. Certificate of Compliance: A supplier’s certification that the supplies or services in question meet specified-requirements. Certificate of origin: An international business document that certifies the country of origin of the shipment. Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity: The grant of operating authority that is given to common carriers. A carrier must prove that a public need exists and that the carrier is fit، willing، and able to provide the needed service. The certificate may specify the commodities to be hauled،  

تاریخ : شنبه 13 دی 1393 | 09:13 ب.ظ | نویسنده : sinister | نظرات

لغات و اصطلاحات زنجیره تامین و تدارکات




SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 21 of 167
Bulk storage: The process of housing or storing materials and packages in larger quantities,
generally using the original packaging or shipping containers or boxes.
Bulk packing: The process or act of placing numbers of small cartons or boxes into a larger single
box to aid in the movement of product and to prevent damage or pilferage to the smaller cartons or
boxes.
Bullwhip Effect: An extreme change in the supply position upstream in a supply chain generated by
a small change in demand downstream in the supply chain. Inventory can quickly move from being
backordered to being excess. This is caused by the serial nature of communicating orders up the chain
with the inherent transportation delays of moving product down the chain. The bullwhip effect can be
eliminated by synchronizing the supply chain.
Bundle: A group of products that are shipped together as an unassembled unit.
Bundling: An occurrence where two or more products are combined into one transaction for a single
price.
Burn Rate: The rate of consumption of cash in a business. Burn rate is used to determine cash
requirements on an on-going basis. A burn-rate of $50,000 would mean the company spends $50,000
a month above any incoming cash flow to sustain its business. Entrepreneurial companies will
calculate their burn-rate in order to understand how much time they have before they need to raise
more money, or show a positive cash flow.
Business Activity Monitoring (BAM): A term which refers to capturing operational data in real-time
or close to it, making it possible for an enterprise to react more quickly to events. This is typically
done through software and includes features to provide alerts / notifications when specific events
occur. See also: Supply Chain Event Management
Business Application: Any computer program, set of programs, or package of programs created to
solve a particular business problem or function.
Business Continuity Plan (BCP): A contingency plan for sustained operations during periods of high
risk, such as during labor unrest or natural disaster. CSCMP provides suggestions for helping
companies do continuity planning in their Securing the Supply Chain Research. A copy of the research
is available on the CSCMP website.
Business Logistics: The systematic and coordinated set of activities required to provide the physical
movement and storage of goods (raw materials, parts, finished goods) from vendor/supply services
through company facilities to the customer (market) and the associated activities—packaging, order
processing, etc.—in an efficient manner necessary to enable the organization to contribute to the
explicit goals of the company.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 22 of 167
Business Plan: 1) A statement of long-range strategy and revenue, cost, and profit objectives
usually accompanied by budgets, a projected balance sheet, and a cash flow (source and application
of funds) statement. A business plan is usually stated in terms of dollars and grouped by product
family. The business plan is then translated into synchronized tactical functional plans through the
production planning process (or the sales and operations planning process). Although frequently
stated in different terms (dollars versus units), these tactical plans should agree with each other and
with the business plan. See: long-term planning, strategic plan. 2) A document consisting of the
business details (organization, strategy, and financing tactics) prepared by an entrepreneur to plan for
a new business.
Business Performance Measurement (BPM): A technique which uses a system of goals and
metrics to monitor performance. Analysis of these measurements can help businesses in periodically
setting business goals, and then providing feedback to managers on progress towards those goals. A
specific measure can be compared to itself over time, compared with a preset target or evaluated
along with other measures.
Business Process Outsourcing (BPO): The practice of outsourcing non-core internal functions to
third parties. Functions typically outsourced include logistics, accounts payable, accounts receivable,
payroll and human resources. Other areas can include IT development or complete management of
the IT functions of the enterprise.
Business Process Reengineering (BPR): The fundamental rethinking and oftentimes, radical
redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic organizational improvements.
Business-to-Business (B2B): As opposed to business-to-consumer (B2C). Many companies are now
focusing on this strategy, and their sites are aimed at businesses (think wholesale) and only other
businesses can access or buy products on the site. Internet analysts predict this will be the biggest
sector on the Web.
Business-to-Consumer (B2C): The hundreds of e-commerce Web sites that sell goods directly to
consumers are considered B2C. This distinction is important when comparing Websites that are B2B as
the entire business model, strategy, execution, and fulfillment is different.
Business Unit: A division or segment of an organization generally treated as a separate profit-andloss
center.
Buyer Behavior: The way individuals or organizations behave in a purchasing situation. The
customer-oriented concept finds out the wants, needs, and desires of customers and adapts resources
of the organization to deliver need-satisfying goods and services.
Byte: A computer term used to define a string of 7 or 8 bits, or binary digits. The length of the string
determines the amount of data that can be represented. The 8-bit byte can represent numerous
special characters, 26 uppercase and lowercase alphabetic characters, and 10 numeric digits, totaling
256 possible combinations.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 23 of 167
C
Cabotage: A federal law that requires coastal and inter-coastal traffic to be carried in U.S.-built and –
registered ships.
CAE: See Computer Aided Engineering
Cage: (1) A secure enclosed area for storing highly valuable items, (2) a pallet-sized platform with
sides that can be secured to the tines of a forklift and in which a person may ride to inventory items
stored will above the warehouse floor.
Caged: Referring to the practice of placing high-value or sensitive products in a fenced off area within
a warehouse.
Calendar Days: The conversion of working days to calendar days is based on the number of regularly
scheduled workdays per week in your manufacturing calendar.
Calculation:
To convert from working days to calendar days: if work week
= 4 days, multiply by 1.75
= 5 days, multiply by 1.4
= 6 days, multiply by 1.17
Call Center: A facility housing personnel who respond to customer phone queries. These personnel
may provide customer service or technical support. Call centers may be in-house or outsourced.
Can-order Point: An ordering system used when multiple items are ordered from one vendor. The
can-order point is a point higher than the original order point. When any one of the items triggers an
order by reaching the must-order point, all items below their can-order point are also ordered. The
can-order point is set by considering the additional holding cost that would be incurred should the
item be ordered early.
Cantilever rack: Racking system that allows for storage of very long items.
Capable to Promise (CTP): A technique used to determine if product can be assembled and shipped
by a specific date. Component availability throughout the supply chain, as well as available materials,
is checked to determine if delivery of a particular product can be made. This process may involve
multiple manufacturing or distribution sites. Capable-to-promise is used to determine when a new or
unscheduled customer order can be delivered. Capable-to-promise employs a finite-scheduling model
of the manufacturing system to determine when an item can be delivered. It includes any constraints
that might restrict the production, such as availability of resources, lead times for raw materials or
purchased parts, and requirements for lower-level components or subassemblies. The resulting
delivery date takes into consideration production capacity, the current manufacturing environment,
and future order commitments. The objective is to reduce the time spent by production planners in
expediting orders and adjusting plans because of inaccurate delivery-date promises.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 24 of 167
Capability Maturity Model (CMM): A framework that describes the key elements of an effective
software process. It's an evolutionary improvement path from an immature process to a mature,
disciplined process. The CMM covers practices for planning, engineering and managing software
development and maintenance.When followed, these key practices improve the ability of organizations
to meet goals for cost, schedule, functionality and product quality.
Capacity: The physical facilities, personnel and process available to meet the product or service needs
of customers. Capacity generally refers to the maximum output or producing ability of a machine, a
person, a process, a factory, a product, or a service. Also see: Capacity Management
Capacity Management: The concept that capacity should be understood, defined, and measured for
each level in the organization to include market segments, products, processes, activities, and
resources. In each of these applications, capacity is defined in a hierarchy of idle, non-productive, and
productive views.
Capacity Planning: Assuring that needed resources (e.g., manufacturing capacity, distribution center
capacity, transportation vehicles, etc.) will be available at the right time and place to meet logistics
and supply chain needs.
CAPEX: A term used to describe the monetary requirements (CAPital EXPenditure) of an initial
investment in new machines or equipment.
Capital: The resources, or money, available for investing in assets that produce output.
Car Supply Charge: A railroad charge for a shipper’s exclusive use of special equipment.
Cargo: A product shipped in an aircraft, railroad car, ship, barge, or truck.
Carload Lot: A shipment that qualifies for a reduced freight rate because it is greater than a specified
minimum weight. Since carload rates usually include minimum rates per unit of volume, the higher
LCL (less than carload) rate may be less expensive for a heavy but relatively small shipment.
Carmack Amendment: An Interstate Commerce Act amendment that delineates the liability of
common carriers and the bill of lading provision.
Carousel: Carousel: Automated equipment generally used for picking of small, high-volume parts.
Carrier: A firm which transports goods or people via land, sea or air.
Cartel: A group of companies that agree to cooperate, rather than compete, in producing a product or
service, thus limiting or regulating competition.
Case Code: The UPC number for a case of product. The UPC case code is different from the UPC item
code. This is sometimes referred to as the “Shipping Container Symbol” or ITF-14 code.
Cash-to-Cash Cycle Time: The time it takes for cash to flow back into a company after it has been
spent for raw materials. Synonym: Cash Conversion Cycle
Calculation:
Total Inventory Days of Supply + Days of Sales Outstanding - Average Payment Period for
Material in days
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 25 of 167
Cash Conversion Cycle: 1) In retailing, the length of time between the sale of products and the cash
payments for a company’s resources. 2) In manufacturing, the length of time from the purchase of
raw materials to the collection of accounts receivable from customers for the sale of products or
services. Also see: Cash-to-Cash Cycle Time
Catalog Channel: A call center or order processing facility that receives orders directly from the
customer based on defined catalog offerings and ships directly to the customer.
Categorical Plan: A method of selecting and evaluating suppliers that considers input from many
departments and functions within the buyer’s organization and systematically categorizes that input.
Engineering, production, quality assurance, and other functional areas evaluate all suppliers for critical
factors within their scope of responsibility. For example, engineering would develop a category
evaluating suppliers’ design flexibility. Rankings are developed across categories, and performance
ratings are obtained and supplier selections are made. Also see: Weighted-Point Plan
Category Management: The management of product categories as strategic business units. The
practice empowers a category manager with full responsibility for the assortment decisions, inventory
levels, shelf-space allocation, promotions and buying. With this authority and responsibility, the
category manager is able to judge more accurately the consumer buying patterns, product sales and
market trends of that category.
Cause and Effect Diagram: In quality management, a structured process used to organize ideas into
logical groupings. Used in brainstorming and problem solving exercises. Also known as Ishikawa or
fish bone diagram.
Causal Forecast: In forecasting, a type of forecasting that uses cause-and-effect associations to
predict and explain relationships between the independent and dependent variables. An example of a
causal model is an econometric model used to explain the demand for housing starts based on
consumer base, interest rates, personal incomes, and land availability.
CBP: See Customs and Border Protection, U.S.
CBT: See Computer-Based Training
Cell: A manufacturing or service unit consisting of a number of workstations, and the materials
transport mechanisms and storage buffers that interconnect them.
Cellular Manufacturing: A manufacturing approach in which equipment and workstations are
arranged to facilitate small-lot, continuous-flow production. In a manufacturing "cell," all operations
necessary to produce a component or subassembly are performed in close proximity, thus allowing for
quick feedback between operators when quality problems and other issues arise. Workers in a
manufacturing cell typically are cross-trained and, therefore, able to perform multiple tasks as
needed.
Center-of-Gravity Approach: A supply chain planning methodology for locating distribution centers
at approximately the location representing the minimum transportation costs between the plants, the
distribution centers, and the markets.
Centralized Authority: Management authority to make decisions is restricted to few managers.

برچسب ها: SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS TERMS and GLOSSARY Updated October 2006 Definitions compiled by: Kate Vitasek Supply Chain Visions www.scvisions.com Bellevue، Washington Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions، nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted. Page 21 of 167 Bulk storage: The process of housing or storing materials and packages in larger quantities، generally using the original packaging or shipping containers or boxes. Bulk packing: The process or act of placing numbers of small cartons or boxes into a larger single box to aid in the movement of product and to prevent damage or pilferage to the smaller cartons or boxes. Bullwhip Effect: An extreme change in the supply position upstream in a supply chain generated by a small change in demand downstream in the supply chain. Inventory can quickly move from being backordered to being excess. This is caused by the serial nature of communicating orders up the chain with the inherent transportation delays of moving product down the chain. The bullwhip effect can be eliminated by synchronizing the supply chain. Bundle: A group of products that are shipped together as an unassembled unit. Bundling: An occurrence where two or more products are combined into one transaction for a single price. Burn Rate: The rate of consumption of cash in a business. Burn rate is used to determine cash requirements on an on-going basis. A burn-rate of $50، 000 would mean the company spends $50، 000 a month above any incoming cash flow to sustain its business. Entrepreneurial companies will calculate their burn-rate in order to understand how much time they have before they need to raise more money، or show a positive cash flow. Business Activity Monitoring (BAM): A term which refers to capturing operational data in real-time or close to it،  

تاریخ : شنبه 13 دی 1393 | 09:13 ب.ظ | نویسنده : sinister | نظرات

لغات و اصطلاحات زنجیره تامین و تدارکات




SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 17 of 167
Bespoke: An individual or custom-made product or service. Traditionally applied to custom-tailored
clothing, the term has been extended to information technology, especially for custom-designed
software as an alternative to commercial (COTS) software.
Best-in-Class: An organization, usually within a specific industry, recognized for excellence in a
specific process area.
Best Practice: A specific process or group of processes which have been recognized as the best
method for conducting an action. Best Practices may vary by industry or geography depending on the
environment being used. Best practices methodology may be applied with respect to resources,
activities, cost object, or processes.
Beta Release: A pre-released version of a product that is sent to customers for evaluation and
feedback.
Bilateral Contract: An agreement wherein each party makes a promise to the other party.
Bill of Activities: A listing of activities required by a product, service, process output or other cost
object. Bill of activity attributes could include volume and or cost of each activity in the listing.
Bill of Lading (BOL): A transportation document that is the contract of carriage containing the terms
and conditions between the shipper and carrier.
Bill of Lading, Through: A bill of lading to cover goods from point of origin to final destination when
interchange or transfer from one carrier to another is necessary to complete the journey.
Bill of Material (BOM): A structured list of all the materials or parts and quantities needed to
produce a particular finished product, assembly, subassembly, or manufactured part, whether
purchased or not.
Bill of Material Accuracy: Conformity of a list of specified items to administrative specifications, with
all quantities correct.
Bill of Resources: A listing of resources required by an activity. Resource attributes could include
cost and volumes.
Bin: 1) A storage device designed to hold small discrete parts. 2) A shelving unit with physical
dividers separating the storage locations.
Binary: A computer term referring to a system of numerical notation that assumes only two possible
states or values, zero (0) and one (1). Computer systems use a binary technique where an individual
bit or “Binary Digit” of data can be “on” or “off” (1 or 0). Multiple bits are combined into a “Byte”
which represents a character or number.
Bisynchronous: A computer term referring to a communication protocol whereby messages are sent
as blocks of characters. The blocks of data are checked for completeness and accuracy by the
receiving computer.
Bitmap Image (BMP): The standard image format on Windows-compatible computers. Bitmap
images can be saved for Windows or OS/2 systems and support 24-bit color.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 18 of 167
Blanket Order: See Blanket Purchase Order
Blanket Purchase Order: A long-term commitment to a supplier for material against which shortterm
releases will be generated to satisfy requirements. Often blanket orders cover only one item with
predetermined delivery dates. Synonym: Blanket Order, Standing Order
Blanket Release: The authorization to ship and/or produce against a blanket agreement or contract.
Blanket Rate: A rate that does not increase according to the distance the commodity is shipped.
Bleeding Edge: An unproven process or technology so far ahead of its time that it may create a
competitive disadvantage.
Block Diagram: A diagram that shows the operation, interrelationships and interdependencies of
components in a system. Boxes, or blocks (hence the name), represent the components; connecting
lines between the blocks represent interfaces. There are two types of block diagrams: a functional
block diagram, which shows a system's subsystems and lower level products and their
interrelationships and which interfaces with other systems; and a reliability block diagram, which is
similar to the functional block diagram except that it is modified to emphasize those aspects
influencing reliability.
Blocking Bug: A defect that prevents further or more detailed analysis or verification of a functional
area or feature, or any issue that would prevent the product from shipping.
Blow Through: An MRP process which uses a “phantom bill of material” and permits MRP logic to
drive requirements straight through the phantom item to its components. The MRP system usually
retains its ability to net against any occasional inventories of the item. Also see: Phantom Bill of
Material
Body of Knowledge (BOK): The prescribed aggregation of knowledge in a particular area an
individual is expected to have mastered to be considered or certified as a practitioner.
BOL: See Bill of Lading
BOK: See Body of Knowledge
BOM: See Bill of Materials
Book Inventory: An accounting definition of inventory units or value obtained from perpetual
inventory records rather than by actual count.
Bookings: The sum of the value of all orders received (but not necessarily shipped), net of all
discounts, coupons, allowances, and rebates.
Bundle: A group of products that are shipped together as an unassembled unit.
Bonded Warehouse: Warehouse approved by the Treasury Department and under bond/guarantee
for observance of revenue laws. Used for storing goods until duty is paid or goods are released in
some other proper manner.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 19 of 167
Bottleneck: A constraint, obstacle or planned control that limits throughput or the utilization of
capacity.
Bottom-up Replanning: In MRP, the process of using pegging data to solve material availability or
other problems. This process is accomplished by the planner (not the computer system), who
evaluates the effects of possible solutions. Potential solutions include compressing lead time, cutting
order quantity, substituting material, and changing the master schedule.
Box-Jenkins Model: A forecasting method based on regression and moving average models. The
model is based not on regression of independent variables, but on past observations of the item to be
forecast at varying time lags and on previous error values from forecasting. See also: Forecast
Boxcar: An enclosed rail car typically 40 to 50 feet long; used for packaged freight and some bulk
commodities.
BMP: See Bitmap Imagine
BPM: See Business Performance Measurement
BPO: See Business Process Outsourcing
BPR: See Business Process Reengineering
Bracing: Securing a shipment inside a carrier’s vehicle to prevent damage.
Bracketed Recall: Recall from customers of suspect lot numbers plus a specified number of lots
produced before and after the suspect ones.
Branding: The use of a name, term, symbol, or design, or a combination of these, to identify a
product.
Breadman: A specific application of Kanban, used in coordinating vendor replenishment activities. In
making bread or other route type deliveries, the deliveryman typically arrives at the customer's
location and fills a designated container or storage location with product. The size of the order is not
specified on an ongoing basis, nor does the customer even specify requirements for each individual
delivery. Instead, the supplier assumes the responsibility for quantifying the need against a
prearranged set of rules and delivers the requisite quantity.
Break-Bulk: The separation of a single consolidated bulk load into smaller individual shipments for
delivery to the ultimate consignees. This is preceded by a consolidation of orders at the time of
shipment, where many individual orders which are destined for a specific geographic area are grouped
into one shipment in order to reduce cost.
Break-Even Chart: A graphical tool showing the total variable cost and fixed cost curve along with
the total revenue curve. The point of intersection is defined as the break-even point, i.e., the point at
which total revenues exactly equal total costs. Also see: Total Cost Curve
Break-Even Point: The level of production or the volume of sales at which operations are neither
profitable nor unprofitable. The break-even point is the intersection of the total revenue and total cost
curves. Also see: Total Cost Curve
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 20 of 167
Bricks and Mortar: The act of selling through a physical location. The flip side of clicks and mortar,
where selling is conducted via the Internet. An informal term for representing the old economy versus
new economy or the Industrial economy versus information economy.
Broadband: A high-speed, high-capacity transmission channel. Broadband channels are carried on
radio wave, coaxial or fiber-optic cables that have a wider bandwidth than conventional telephone
lines, giving them the ability to carry video, voice, and data simultaneously.
Broken Case: An open case. The term is often used interchangeably with "repack" or "less-than-fullcase"
to name the area in which materials are picked in that form.
Broker: An intermediary between the shipper and the carrier. The broker arranges transportation for
shippers and represents carriers.
Brokered Systems: Independent computer systems, owned by independent organizations or entities,
linked in a manner to allow one system to retrieve information from another. For example, a
customer's computer system is able to retrieve order status from a supplier's computer.
Browser: A utility that allows an internet user to look through collections of things. For example,
Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Explorer allow you to view contents on the World Wide Web.
BTS: See Balance to Ship
Bulletin Board: An electronic forum that hosts posted messages and articles related to a common
subject.
Bucketed System: An MRP, DRP, or other time-phased system in which all time-phased data are
accumulated into time periods, or buckets. If the period of accumulation is one week, then the system
is said to have weekly buckets.
Bucketless System: An MRP, DRP, or other time-phased system in which all time-phased data are
processed, stored, and usually displayed using dated records rather than defined time periods, or
buckets.
Buffer: 1) A quantity of materials awaiting further processing. It can refer to raw materials,
semifinished stores or hold points, or a work backlog that is purposely maintained behind a work
center. 2) In the theory of constraints, buffers can be time or material and support throughput and/or
due date performance. Buffers can be maintained at the constraint, convergent points (with a
constraint part), divergent points, and shipping points.
Buffer Management: In the theory of constraints, a process in which all expediting in a shop is
driven by what is scheduled to be in the buffers (constraint, shipping, and assembly buffers). By
expediting this material into the buffers, the system helps avoid idleness at the constraint and missed
customer due dates. In addition, the causes of items missing from the buffer are identified, and the
frequency of occurrence is used to prioritize improvement activities.
Buffer Stock: See Safety Stock
Bulk Area: A storage area for large items which at a minimum are most efficiently handled by the

برچسب ها: SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS TERMS and GLOSSARY Updated October 2006 Definitions compiled by: Kate Vitasek Supply Chain Visions www.scvisions.com Bellevue، Washington Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions، nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted. Page 17 of 167 Bespoke: An individual or custom-made product or service. Traditionally applied to custom-tailored clothing، the term has been extended to information technology، especially for custom-designed software as an alternative to commercial (COTS) software. Best-in-Class: An organization، usually within a specific industry، recognized for excellence in a specific process area. Best Practice: A specific process or group of processes which have been recognized as the best method for conducting an action. Best Practices may vary by industry or geography depending on the environment being used. Best practices methodology may be applied with respect to resources،  

تاریخ : شنبه 13 دی 1393 | 09:12 ب.ظ | نویسنده : sinister | نظرات

لغات و اصطلاحات زنجیره تامین و تدارکات




SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 12 of 167
Automated Guided Vehicle System (AGVS): A transportation network that automatically routes
one or more material handling devices, such as carts or pallet trucks, and positions them at
predetermined destinations without operator intervention.
Automated Manifest System (AMS): A multi-modular cargo inventory control and release
notification system through which carriers submit their electronic cargo declaration 24 hours before
loading. See 24-hour Rule
Automated Storage/Retrieval System (AS/RS): A high-density rack inventory storage system
with un-manned vehicles automatically loading and unloading products to/from the racks.
Automatic Relief: A set of inventory bookkeeping methods that automatically adjusts computerized
inventory records based on a production transaction. Examples of automatic relief methods are
backflushing, direct-deduct, pre-deduct, and post-deduct processing.
Automatic Rescheduling: Rescheduling done by the computer to automatically change due dates on
scheduled receipts when it detects that due dates and need dates are out of phase. Ant: manual
rescheduling
Available Inventory: The on-hand inventory balance minus allocations, reservations, backorders,
and (usually) quantities held for quality problems. Often called “beginning available balance".
Synonyms: Beginning Available Balance, Net Inventory
Available to Promise (ATP): The uncommitted portion of a company’s inventory and planned
production maintained in the master schedule to support customer-order promising. The ATP quantity
is the uncommitted inventory balance in the first period and is normally calculated for each period in
which an MPS receipt is scheduled. In the first period, ATP includes on-hand inventory less customer
orders that are due and overdue. Three methods of calculation are used: discrete ATP, cumulative ATP
with lookahead, and cumulative ATP without lookahead.
Available to Sell (ATS): Total quantity of goods committed to the pipeline for a ship to or selling
location. This includes the current inventory at a location and any open purchase orders.
Average Annual Production Materials Related A/P (Accounts Payable): The value of direct
materials acquired in that year for which payment has not yet been made. Production-related
materials are those items classified as material purchases and included in the Cost of Goods Sold
(COGS) as raw material purchases. Calculate using the 5-Point Annual Average.
Average Cost per Unit: The estimated total cost, including allocated overhead, to produce a batch of
goods divided by the total number of units produced.
Average Inventory: The average inventory level over a period of time. Implicit in this definition is a
“sampling period” which is the amount of time between inventory measurements. For example, daily
inventory levels over a two-week period of time, hourly inventory levels over one day, etc. The
average inventory for the same total period of time can fluctuate widely depending upon the sampling
period used.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 13 of 167
Average Payment Period (for materials): The average time from receipt of production-related
materials and payment for those materials. Production-related materials are those items classified as
material purchases and included in the Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) as raw material purchases. (An
element of Cash-to-Cash Cycle Time).
Calculation:
[Five point annual average production-related material accounts payable] / [Annual
production-related material receipts/365]
AVL: See Approved Vendor List
Avoidable Cost: A cost associated with an activity that would not be incurred if the activity was not
performed (e.g., telephone cost associated with vendor support).
AWB: See Air Waybill
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 14 of 167
B
B2B: See Business to Business
B2C: See Business to Consumer
Back Order: Product ordered but out of stock and promised to ship when the product becomes
available.
Back Scheduling: A technique for calculating operation start dates and due dates. The schedule is
computed starting with the due date for the order and working backward to determine the required
start date and/or due dates for each operation.
Backflush: A method of inventory bookkeeping where the book (computer) inventory of components
is automatically reduced by the computer after completion of activity on the component’s upper-level
parent item based on what should have been used as specified on the bill of material and allocation
records. This approach has the disadvantage of a built-in differential between the book record and
what is physically in stock. Synonym: explode-to-deduct. Also see: Pre-deduct Inventory Transaction
Processing
Backhaul: The process of a transportation vehicle returning from the original destination point to the
point of origin. The 1980 Motor Carrier Act deregulated interstate commercial trucking and thereby
allowed carriers to contract for the return trip. The backhaul can be with a full, partial, or empty load.
An empty backhaul is called deadheading. Also see: Deadhead
Backlog Customer: Customer orders received but not yet shipped; also includes backorders and
future orders.
Backorder: 1) The act of retaining a quantity to ship against an order when other order lines have
already been shipped. Backorders are usually caused by stock shortages. 2) The quantity remaining
to be shipped if an initial shipment(s) has been processed. Note: In some cases backorders are not
allowed, this results in a lost sale when sufficient quantities are not available to completely ship and
order or order line. Also see: Balance to Ship
Backsourcing: The process of recapturing and taking responsibility internally for processes that were
previously outsourced to a contract manufacturer, fulfillment or other service provider. Backsourcing
typically involves the cancellation or expiration of an outsourcing contract and can be nearly as
complex as the original outsourcing process.
Back Order: Product ordered but out of stock and promised to ship when the product becomes
available.
Balance-of-Stores Record: A double-entry record system that shows the balance of inventory items
on hand and the balances of items on order and available for future orders. Where a reserve system of
materials control is used, the balance of material on reserve is also shown.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 15 of 167
Balance of Trade: The surplus or deficit which results from comparing a country's exports and
imports of merchandise only.
Balance to Ship (BTS): Balance or remaining quantity of a promotion or order that has yet to ship.
Also see: Backorder
Balanced Scorecard: A structured measurement system developed by David Norton and Robert
Kaplan of the Harvard Business School. It is based on a mix of financial and non financial measures of
business performance. A list of financial and operational measurements used to evaluate
organizational or supply chain performance. The dimensions of the balanced scorecard might include
customer perspective, business process perspective, financial perspective, and innovation and learning
perspectives. It formally connects overall objectives, strategies, and measurements. Each dimension
has goals and measurements. Also see: Scorecard
BAM: See Business Activity Monitoring
Bar Code: A symbol consisting of a series of printed bars representing values. A system of optical
character reading, scanning, and tracking of units by reading a series of printed bars for translation
into a numeric or alphanumeric identification code. A popular example is the UPC code used on retail
packaging.
Bar code scanner: A device to read bar codes and communicate data to computer systems.
Barge: The cargo-carrying vehicle used primarily by inland water carriers. The basic barges have
open tops, but there are covered barges for both dry and liquid cargoes.
Barrier to Entry: Factors that prevent companies from entering into a particular market, such as high
initial investment in equipment.
Base Demand: The percentage of a company’s demand that is derived from continuing contracts
and/or existing customers. Because this demand is well known and recurring, it becomes the basis of
management’s plans. Synonym: Baseload Demand
Base Index: See Base Series
Base Inventory Level: The inventory level made up of aggregate lot-size inventory plus the
aggregate safety stock inventory. It does not take into account the anticipation inventory that will
result from the production plan. The base inventory level should be known before the production plan
is made. Also see: Aggregate Inventory.
Base Series: A standard succession of values of demand-over-time data used in forecasting seasonal
items. This series of factors is usually based on the relative level of demand during the corresponding
period of previous years. The average value of the base series over a seasonal cycle will be 1.0. A
figure higher than 1.0 indicates that the demand for that period is more than the average; a figure
less than 1.0 indicates less than the average. For forecasting purposes, the base series is
superimposed upon the average demand and trend in demand for the item in question. Synonym:
Base Index. Also see: Seasonality
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 16 of 167
Base Stock System: A method of inventory control that includes as special cases most of the
systems in practice. In this system, when an order is received for any item, it is used as a picking
ticket, and duplicate copies, called replenishment orders, are sent back to all stages of production to
initiate replenishment of stocks. Positive or negative orders (called base stock orders) are also used
from time to time to adjust the level of the base stock of each item. In actual practice, replenishment
orders are usually accumulated when they are issued and are released at regular intervals.
Baseload Demand: See Base Demand
Basic Producer: A manufacturer that uses natural resources to produce materials for other
manufacturing. A typical example is a steel company that processes iron ore and produces steel
ingots; others are those making wood pulp, glass, and rubber.
Basing-Point Pricing: A pricing system that includes a transportation cost from a particular city or
town in a zone or region even though the shipment does not originate at the basing point.
Batch Control Totals: The result of grouping transactions at the input stage and establishing control
totals over them to ensure proper processing. These control totals can be based on document counts,
record counts, quantity totals, dollar totals, or hash (mixed data, such as customer AR numbers)
totals.
Batch Number: A sequence number associated with a specific batch or production run of products
and used for tracking purposes. Synonym: Lot Number
Batch Picking: A method of picking orders in which order requirements are aggregated by product
across orders to reduce movement to and from product locations. The aggregated quantities of each
product are then transported to a common area where the individual orders are constructed. Also
See: Discrete Order Picking, Order Picking, Zone Picking
Batch Processing: A computer term which refers to the processing of computer information after it
has been accumulated in one group, or batch. This is the opposite of “real-time” processing where
transactions are processed in their entirety as they occur.
Baud: A computer term describing the rate of transmission over a channel or circuit. The baud rate is
equal to the number of pulses that can be transmitted in one second, often the same as the number of
bits per second. Common rates are now 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600 bits and 19.2 and 56 kilobytes (Kbs)
for “dial-up” circuits, and may be much higher for broadband circuits.
BCP: See Business Continuity Plan
Beginning Available Balance: See Available Inventory
Benchmarking: The process of comparing performance against the practices of other leading
companies for the purpose of improving performance.Companies also benchmark internally by
tracking and comparing current performance with past performance. Benchmarking seeks to improve
any given business process by exploiting "best practices" rather than merely measuring the best
performance. Best practices are the cause of best performance. Studying best practices provides the
greatest opportunity for gaining a strategic, operational, and financial advantage.
Benefit-cost ratio: An analytical tool used in public planning; a ratio of total measurable benefits

برچسب ها: SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS TERMS and GLOSSARY Updated October 2006 Definitions compiled by: Kate Vitasek Supply Chain Visions www.scvisions.com Bellevue، Washington Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions، nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted. Page 12 of 167 Automated Guided Vehicle System (AGVS): A transportation network that automatically routes one or more material handling devices، such as carts or pallet trucks، and positions them at predetermined destinations without operator intervention. Automated Manifest System (AMS): A multi-modular cargo inventory control and release notification system through which carriers submit their electronic cargo declaration 24 hours before loading. See 24-hour Rule Automated Storage/Retrieval System (AS/RS): A high-density rack inventory storage system with un-manned vehicles automatically loading and unloading products to/from the racks. Automatic Relief: A set of inventory bookkeeping methods that automatically adjusts computerized inventory records based on a production transaction. Examples of automatic relief methods are backflushing، direct-deduct، pre-deduct،  

تاریخ : شنبه 13 دی 1393 | 09:11 ب.ظ | نویسنده : sinister | نظرات

لغات و اصطلاحات زنجیره تامین و تدارکات




SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 8 of 167
American Society for Quality (ASQ): Founded in 1946, a not-for-profit educational organization
consisting of 144,000 members who are interested in quality improvement.
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM): Not-for-profit organization that provides a
forum for the development and publication of voluntary consensus standards for materials, products,
systems and services.
American Society for Training and Development (ASTD): A membership organization providing
materials, education and support related to workplace learning and performance.
American Society of Transportation & Logistics: A professional organization in the field of
logistics.
American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII): ASCII format - simple text
based data with no formatting. The standard code for information exchange among data processing
systems. Uses a coded character set consisting of 7-bit coded characters (8 bits including parity
check).
American Trucking Association, Inc.: A motor carrier industry association that is made up of
subconferences representing various sectors of the motor carrier industry.
American Waterway Operators: A domestic water carrier industry association representing barge
operators on the inland waterways.
AMS: See Automated Manifest System
Amtrak: The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, a federally created corporation that operates
most of the United States’ intercity passenger rail service.
Animated GIF: A file containing a series of GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) images that are
displayed in rapid sequence by some Web browsers, giving an animated effect. Also see: GIF
ANSI: See American National Standards Institute
ANSI ASC X12: American National Standards Institute Accredited Standards Committee X12. The
committee of ANSI that is charted with setting EDI standards.
ANSI Standard: A published transaction set approved by ANSI. The standards are reviewed every six
months.
Anticipated Delay Report: A report, normally issued by both manufacturing and purchasing to the
material planning function, regarding jobs or purchase orders that will not be completed on time and
explaining why the jobs or purchases are delayed and when they will be completed. This report is an
essential ingredient of the closed-loop MRP system. It is normally a handwritten report. Synonym:
delay report
Anticipation Inventories: Additional inventory above basic pipeline stock to cover projected trends
of increasing sales, planned sales promotion programs, seasonal fluctuations, plant shutdowns, and
vacations.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 9 of 167
Anti-Dumping Duty: An additional import duty imposed in instances where imported goods are
priced at less than the normal price charged in the exporter's domestic market and cause material
injury to domestic industry in the importing country.
Any-Quantity Rate (AQ): The same rate applies to any size shipment tendered to a carrier; no
discount rate is available for large shipments.
A/P: See Accounts Payable
Applicability Statement 2 (AS2): A specification for Electronic Data Interchange between
businesses using the Internet's Web page protocol, the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). The
specification is an extension of the earlier version, Applicability Statement 1 (AS1). Both specifications
were created by EDI over the Internet (EDIINT), a working group of the Internet Engineering Task
Force (IETF) that develops secure and reliable business communications standards.
Application Service Provider (ASP): A company that offers access over the Internet to application
(examples of applications include word processors, database programs, Web browsers, development
tools, communication programs) and related services that would otherwise have to be located in their
own computers. Sometimes referred to as “apps-on-tap", ASP services are expected to become an
important alternative, especially for smaller companies with low budgets for information technology.
The purpose is to try to reduce a company's burden by installing, managing, and maintaining
software.
Application-to-Application: The direct interchange of data between computers, without re-keying.
Appraisal Costs: Those costs associated with the formal evaluation and audit of quality in the firm.
Typical costs include inspection, quality audits, testing, calibration, and checking time.
Approved Vendor List (AVL): List of the suppliers approved for doing business. The AVL is usually
created by procurement or sourcing and engineering personnel using a variety of criteria such as
technology, functional fit of the product, financial stability, and past performance of the supplier.
APS: See Advanced Planning and Scheduling
AQ: See Any quantity rate
AQL: See Acceptable Quality Level
A/R: See Accounts Receivable
Army Corps of Engineers: A federal agency responsible for the construction and maintenance or
waterways.
Arrival Notice: A notice from the delivering carrier to the Notify Party indicating the shipment's
arrival date at a specific location (normally the destination).
Arrow diagram: A planning tool to diagram a sequence of events or activities (nodes) and the
interconnectivity of such nodes. It is used for scheduling and especially for determining the critical
path through nodes.
Artificial Intelligence: Understanding and computerizing the human thought process.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 10 of 167
ASC: See Accredited Standards Committee of ANSI
ASC X12: Accredited Standards Committee X12. A committee of ANSI chartered in 1979 to develop
uniform standards for the electronic interchange of business documents.
ASCII: See American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASN: See Advanced Shipping Notice.
ASP: See Application Service Provider
ASQ: See American Society for Quality
AS/RS: See Automated Storage and Retrieval System
Association of American Railroads: A railroad industry association that represents the larger U.S.
railroads.
ASTM: See American Society for Testing and Materials
ASTD: See American Society for Training and Development
AS2: See Applicability Statement 2
Assemble-to-order: A production environment where a good or service can be assembled after
receipt of a customer's order. The key components (bulk, semi-finished, intermediate, subassembly,
fabricated, purchased, packing, and so on) used in the assembly or finishing process are planned and
usually stocked in anticipation of a customer order. Receipt of an order initiates assembly of the
customized product. This strategy is useful where a large number of end products (based on the
selection of options and accessories) can be assembled from common components. Synonym: Finish
to Order. Also see: Make to Order, Make to Stock
Assembly: A group of subassemblies and/or parts that are put together and that constitute a major
subdivision for the final product. An assembly may be an end item or a component of a higher level
assembly.
Assembly Line: An assembly process in which equipment and work centers are laid out to follow the
sequence in which raw materials and parts are assembled.
Assignment: A distribution of costs using causal relationships. Because cost causal relationships are
viewed as more relevant for management decision-making, assignment of costs is generally preferable
to allocation techniques. Syn: Tracing. Contrast with Allocation
Assumed Receipt: The principle of assuming that the contents of a shipment are the same as those
presented on a shipping or delivery note. Shipping and receiving personnel do not check the delivery
quantity. This practice is used in conjunction with bar codes and an EDI-delivered ASN to eliminate
invoices and facilitate rapid receiving.
ATP: See Available to Promise
ATS: See Available to Sell
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 11 of 167
Attachment: An accessory that has to be physically attached to the product.
Attributes: A label used to provide additional classification or information about a resource, activity,
or cost object. Used for focusing attention and may be subjective. Examples are a characteristic, a
score or grade of product or activity, or groupings of these items, and performance measures.
Audit: The inspection and examination of a process or quality system to ensure compliance to
requirements. An audit can apply to an entire organization or may be specific to a function, process or
production step.
Audit Trail: Manual or computerized tracing of the transactions affecting the contents or origin of a
record.
Auditing: Determining the correct transportation charges due the carrier: auditing involves checking
the accuracy of the freight bill for errors, correct rate, and weight.
Auditability: A characteristic of modern information systems, gauged by the ease with which data
can be substantiated by trading it to source documents and the extent to which auditors can rely on
pre-verified and monitored control processes.
Authentication: 1) The process of verifying the eligibility of a device, originator, or individual to
access specific categories of information or to enter specific areas of a facility. This process involves
matching machine-readable code with a predetermined list of authorized end users. 2) A practice of
establishing the validity of a transmission, message, device, or originator, which was designed to
provide protection against fraudulent transmissions.
Authentication Key: A short string of characters used to authenticate transactions between trading
partners.
Autodiscrimination: The functionality of a bar code reader to recognize the bar code symbology
being scanned thus allowing a reader to read several different symbologies consecutively.
AutoID: Referring to an automated identification system. This includes technology such as bar coding
and radio frequency tagging (RFID).
Automated Broker Interface (ABI): The U.S. Customs program to automate the flow of customsrelated
information among customs brokers, importers, and carriers.
Automated Call Distribution (ACD): A feature of large call center or “Customer Interaction Center”
telephone switches that routes calls by rules such as next available employee, skill-set etc.
Automated Clearinghouse (ACH): A nationwide electronic payments system, which more than
15,000 financial institutions use, on behalf of 100,000 corporations and millions of consumer in the
U.S. The funds transfer system of choice among businesses that make electronic payments to
vendors, it is economical and can carry remittance information in standardized, computer processable
data formats.
Automated Commercial Environment (ACE): Update of outmoded Automated Commercial System
(ACS). It is intended to provide automated information system to enable the collection, processing and
analysis of commercial import and export data, allowing for moving goods through the ports faster

برچسب ها: SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS TERMS and GLOSSARY Updated October 2006 Definitions compiled by: Kate Vitasek Supply Chain Visions www.scvisions.com Bellevue، Washington Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions، nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted. Page 8 of 167 American Society for Quality (ASQ): Founded in 1946، a not-for-profit educational organization consisting of 144، 000 members who are interested in quality improvement. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM): Not-for-profit organization that provides a forum for the development and publication of voluntary consensus standards for materials، products، systems and services. American Society for Training and Development (ASTD): A membership organization providing materials،  

تاریخ : شنبه 13 دی 1393 | 09:10 ب.ظ | نویسنده : sinister | نظرات

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SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 4 of 167
Activity Based Budgeting (ABB): An approach to budgeting where a company uses an
understanding of its activities and driver relationships to quantitatively estimate workload and
resource requirements as part of an ongoing business plan. Budgets show the types, number of and
cost of resources that activities are expected to consume based on forecasted workloads. The budget
is part of an organization’s activity-based planning process and can be used in evaluating its success
in setting and pursuing strategic goals.
Activity Based Costing (ABC): A methodology that measures the cost and performance of cost
objects, activities and resources. Cost objects consume activities and activities consume resources.
Resource costs are assigned to activities based on their use of those resources, and activity costs are
reassigned to cost objects (outputs) based on the cost objects proportional use of those activities.
Activity-based costing incorporates causal relationships between cost objects and activities and
between activities and resources.
Activity Based Costing Model: In activity-based cost accounting, a model, by time period, of
resource costs created because of activities related to products or services or other items causing the
activity to be carried out.
Activity Based Costing System: A set of activity-based cost accounting models that collectively
define data on an organization’s resources, activities, drivers, objects, and measurements.
Activity-Based Management (ABM): A discipline focusing on the management of activities within
business processes as the route to continuously improve both the value received by customers and
the profit earned in providing that value. ABM uses activity-based cost information and performance
measurements to influence management action. See also Activity-Based Costing
Activity Based Planning (ABP): Activity-based planning (ABP) is an ongoing process to determine
activity and resource requirements (both financial and operational) based on the ongoing demand of
products or services by specific customer needs. Resource requirements are compared to resources
available and capacity issues are identified and managed. Activity-based budgeting (ABB) is based on
the outputs of activity-based planning.
Activity Dictionary: A listing and description of activities that provides a common/standard definition
of activities across the organization. An activity dictionary can include information about an activity
and/or its relationships, such as activity description, business process, function source, whether valueadded,
inputs, outputs, supplier, customer, output measures, cost drivers, attributes, tasks, and other
information as desired to describe the activity.
Activity Driver: The best single quantitative measure of the frequency and intensity of the demands
placed on an activity by cost objects or other activities. It is used to assign activity costs to cost
objects or to other activities.
Activity Level: A description of types of activities dependent on the functional area. Product-related
activity levels may include unit, batch, and product levels. Customer-related activity levels may
include customer, market, channel, and project levels.
Activity Network Diagram: An arrow diagram used in planning and managing processes and
projects.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 5 of 167
Activity Ratio: A financial ratio used to determine how an organization’s resources perform relative
to the revenue the resources produce. Activity ratios include inventory turnover, receivables
conversion period, fixed-asset turnover, and return on assets.
Actual Cost System: A cost system that collects costs historically as they are applied to production
and allocates indirect costs to products based on the specific costs and achieved volume of the
products.
Actual Costs: The labor, material, and associated overhead costs that are charged against a job as it
moves through the production process.
Actual Demand: Actual demand is composed of customer orders (and often allocations of items,
ingredients, or raw materials to production or distribution). Actual demand nets against or “consumes”
the forecast, depending upon the rules chosen over a time horizon. For example, actual demand will
totally replace forecast inside the sold-out customer order backlog horizon (often called the demand
time fence), but will net against the forecast outside this horizon based on the chosen forecast
consumption rule.
Actual to Theoretical Cycle Time: The ratio of the measured time required to produce a given
output divided by the sum of the time required to produce a given output based on the rated
efficiency of the machinery and labor operations.
Adaptive Control: 1) The ability of a control system to change its own parameters in response to a
measured change in operating conditions. 2) Machine control units in which feeds and/or speeds are
not fixed. The control unit, working from feedback sensors, is able to optimize favorable situations by
automatically increasing or decreasing the machining parameters. This process ensures optimum tool
life or surface finish and/or machining costs or production rates.
Adaptive Smoothing: In forecasting, a form of exponential smoothing in which the smoothing
constant is automatically adjusted as a function of one or many items, for example, forecast error
measurement, calendar characteristics (launch, replenishment, end of life), or demand volume.
Advance Material Request: Ordering materials before the release of the formal product design.
This early release is required because of long lead times.
Advanced Planning and Scheduling (APS): Techniques that deal with analysis and planning of
logistics and manufacturing over the short, intermediate, and long-term time periods. APS describes
any computer program that uses advanced mathematical algorithms or logic to perform optimization
or simulation on finite capacity scheduling, sourcing, capital planning, resource planning, forecasting,
demand management, and others. These techniques simultaneously consider a range of constraints
and business rules to provide real-time planning and scheduling, decision support, available-topromise,
and capable-to-promise capabilities. APS often generates and evaluates multiple scenarios.
Management then selects one scenario to use as the "official plan." The five main components of APS
systems are demand planning, production planning, production scheduling, distribution planning, and
transportation planning.
Advanced Shipping Notice (ASN): Detailed shipment information transmitted to a customer or
consignee in advance of delivery, designating the contents (individual products and quantities of each)
and nature of the shipment. May also include carrier and shipment specifics including time of shipment
and expected time of arrival. See also: Assumed Receipt
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 6 of 167
After-Sale Service: Services provided to the customer after products have been delivered. This can
include repairs, maintenance and/or telephone support. Synonym: Field Service
Agency Tariff: A publication of a rate bureau that contains rates for many carriers.
Agent: An enterprise authorized to transact business for, or in the name of, another enterprise.
Agile Manufacturing—Tools, techniques, and initiatives that enable a plant or company to thrive
under conditions of unpredictable change. Agile manufacturing not only enables a plant to achieve
rapid response to customer needs, but also includes the ability to quickly reconfigure operations—and
strategic alliances—to respond rapidly to unforeseen shifts in the marketplace. In some instances, it
also incorporates “mass customization” concepts to satisfy unique customer requirements. In broad
terms, it includes the ability to react quickly to technical or environmental surprises.
Agglomeration: A net advantage gained by a common location with other companies.
Aggregate Forecast: An estimate of sales, often time phased, for a grouping of products or product
families produced by a facility or firm. Stated in terms of units, dollars, or both, the aggregate forecast
is used for sales and production planning (or for sales and operations planning) purposes.
Aggregate Inventory: The inventory for any grouping of items or products involving multiple stockkeeping
units. Also see: Base Inventory Level
Aggregate Inventory Management: Establishing the overall level (dollar value) of inventory
desired and implementing controls to achieve this goal.
Aggregate Plan: A plan that includes budgeted levels of finished goods, inventory, production
backlogs, and changes in the workforce to support the production strategy. Aggregated information
(e.g., product line, family) rather than product information is used, hence the name aggregate plan.
Aggregate Planning: A process to develop tactical plans to support the organization’s business plan.
Aggregate planning usually includes the development, analysis, and maintenance of plans for total
sales, total production, targeted inventory, and targeted customer backlog for families of products.
The production plan is the result of the aggregate planning process. Two approaches to aggregate
planning exist—production planning and sales and operations planning.
Aggregate Tender Rate: A reduced rate offered to a shipper who tenders two or more class-rated
shipments at one time and one place.
Agility: The ability to successfully manufacture and market a broad range of low-cost, high-quality
products and services with short lead times and varying volumes that provides enhanced value to
customers through customization. Agility merges the four distinctive competencies of cost, quality,
dependability, and flexibility.
AGVS: See Automated Guided Vehicle System
Air Cargo: Freight that is moved by air transportation.
Air Cargo Containers: Containers designed to conform to the inside of an aircraft. There are many
shapes and sizes of containers. Air cargo containers fall into three categories: 1) air cargo pallets 2)
lower deck containers 3) box type containers.
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.
Page 7 of 167
Airport and Airway Trust Fund: A federal fund that collects passenger ticket taxes and disburses
those funds for airport facilities.
Air Taxi: An exempt for-hire air carrier that will fly anywhere on demand: air taxis are restricted to a
maximum payload and passenger capacity per plane.
Air Transport Association of America: A U.S. airline industry association.
Air Waybill (AWB): A bill of lading for air transport that serves as a receipt for the shipper, indicates
that the carrier has accepted the goods listed, obligates the carrier to carry the consignment to the
airport of destination according to specified conditions.
Alaskan carrier: A for-hire air carrier that operates within the state of Alaska.
Alert: See Action Message
Algorithm: A clearly specified mathematical process for computation; a set of rules, which, if
followed, give a prescribed result.
All-cargo Carrier: An air carrier that transports cargo only.
Allocated Item: In an MRP system, an item for which a picking order has been released to the
stockroom but not yet sent from the stockroom.
Allocation: 1) In cost accounting, a distribution of costs using calculations that may be unrelated to
physical observations or direct or repeatable cause-and-effect relationships. Because of the arbitrary
nature of allocations, costs based on cost causal assignment are viewed as more relevant for
management decision-making. 2) In order management, allocation of available inventory to customer
and production orders.
Allocation Costing: See Absorption Costing
Alpha Release: A very early release of a product to get preliminary feedback about the feature set
and usability.
Alternate Routing: A routing, usually less preferred than the primary routing, but resulting in an
identical item. Alternate routings may be maintained in the computer or off-line via manual methods,
but the computer software must be able to accept alternate routings for specific jobs.
American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI): Released for the first time in October 1994, an
economic indicator and cross industry measure of the satisfaction of U.S. household customers with
the quality of the goods and services available to them—both those goods and services produced
within the United States and those provided as imports from foreign firms that have substantial
market shares or dollar sales. The ACSI is co-sponsored by the University of Michigan Business
School, ASQ and the CFI Group.
American National Standards Institute (ANSI): A non-profit organization chartered to develop,
maintain, and promulgate voluntary U.S. national standards in a number of areas, especially with
regards to setting EDI standards. ANSI is the U.S. representative to the International Standards
Organization (ISO).
SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS
TERMS and GLOSSARY
Updated October 2006
Definitions compiled by:
Kate Vitasek
Supply Chain Visions
www.scvisions.com
Bellevue, Washington
Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions,
nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted.

برچسب ها: SUPPLY CHAIN and LOGISTICS TERMS and GLOSSARY Updated October 2006 Definitions compiled by: Kate Vitasek Supply Chain Visions www.scvisions.com Bellevue، Washington Please note: The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) does not take responsibility for the content of these definitions، nor does CSCMP endorse these as official definitions except as noted. Page 4 of 167 Activity Based Budgeting (ABB): An approach to budgeting where a company uses an understanding of its activities and driver relationships to quantitatively estimate workload and resource requirements as part of an ongoing business plan. Budgets show the types، number of and cost of resources that activities are expected to consume based on forecasted workloads. The budget is part of an organization’s activity-based planning process and can be used in evaluating its success in setting and pursuing strategic goals. Activity Based Costing (ABC): A methodology that measures the cost and performance of cost objects، activities and resources. Cost objects consume activities and activities consume resources. Resource costs are assigned to activities based on their use of those resources، and activity costs are reassigned to cost objects (outputs) based on the cost objects proportional use of those activities. Activity-based costing incorporates causal relationships between cost objects and activities and between activities and resources. Activity Based Costing Model: In activity-based cost accounting، a model،  

تاریخ : شنبه 13 دی 1393 | 09:09 ب.ظ | نویسنده : sinister | نظرات

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